SC ANTH 102 - Final Exam Study Guide (13 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Anth 102 - Understand Other Cult
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ANTH 102 1nd Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lecture 1 August 25 Vocabulary Holism Studying a problem by embedding it in a broad social context Studying the whole of the human condition Theory a set of ideas formulated to explain something Enculturation The process of learning and adopting the practices of a culture Lecture 2 August 27 Vocabulary Four Fields of Anthropology Cultural biological archeological and linguistic anthropology Some anthropologists consider there to a fifth field applied anthropology Culture traditions and customs transmitted through learning that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them Cultural Relativism An idea perpetuated by Franz Boas You cannot judge a culture based on your own cultural standards Functionalism An idea perpetuated by sociologist Talcott Parsons Society is like a human body every part of society has a function even if largely disused Historical Particularism Another idea of Franz Boas complementing cultural relativism You must judge the development of a society on its own terms without comparing it to other cultures Globalization A force of change which impacts different parts of the world in different ways as cultures interact Macroculture Defining characteristics of a culture at a national level Microculture The different groups that combine to form a macroculture Armchair Anthropologist One of a class of men who made assumptions on human cultures based on the writings of others rather than direct observation Ethnocentrism The opposite of cultural relativism judging a culture solely by the standards of your own culture Ethnography A systematic study of a culture In modern anthropology generally focusing on one part of culture rather than an all encompassing view Lecture 3 September 3 Vocabulary Fieldwork Going to the area of study to conduct research Observer s Paradox By being present you change the behavior of the people you are observing and they do not act or speak as they normally might Etic A research strategy focusing on the ethnographer s explanations and categories Emic A research strategy focusing on the local explanations and meanings Deductive Approach A method of research more concerned with the etic quantitative approach by testing hypotheses based on data collection Inductive Approach A method of research more concerned with the emic qualitative approach by observing a culture closely and making more broad inferences from there Culture Shock A creepy feeling of alienation resulting from being thrown into a new setting without the comfort of your own language and culture Triangulation Combining several different qualitative and quantitative techniques to get closer to an idea of a cultural trend Qualitative Approach Concerned with textual analysis interviews descriptions and codes or broad themes Based around unstructured observations and freeform interviews Quantitative Approach Concerned with statistics from structures interviews and surveys Community based Participatory Research CBPR A method of experiment design that involves the locals in the project s design and approach Lecture 4 September 8 Vocabulary Liminality The phase of life between a child and adult Imitative Magic Using things that resemble something or someone to influence that person or event like voodoo dolls Contagious Magic Things that were in contact with someone can still have effects on that person be it physical possessions or objects like nail and hair clippings Worldview An all ecompassing view of the world and how it operates Religion Relative to a people s worldview and defined in a number of ways A system of belief and action associated with supernatural beings and forces A system of meaning offering a model of life and a pattern of how to live it Magic Efforts to get supernatural forces and beings to do certain things on their behalf Ritual practices whose apparent effects are outside the confines of the scientific method Animatism A belief in a generalized impersonal supernatural power over which people have some measure of control Animism A belief in spirits and souls as theorized by Edward Tylor Polytheism A belief in multiple gods and goddesses Monotheism A belief in a single deity Myth A narrative with a developed plot telling a story about supernatural beings or forces which is part of an oral religious tradition Doctrine An explicit description of supernatural beings and our relation to them which is associated with institutionalized religion and codified in sacred texts Zoomorphic A supernatural being taking the form or partial form of an animal Anthropomorphic A supernatural being taking a human form Pantheon A collection of gods Ancestor Veneration Praying to the spirits of the dead for intercession Oracle An oracle prophet conveys divine revelations gained through dreams or visions Priest Priestess A full time religious specialist who gains abilities thru formal training Shaman A part time religious specialist who has a direct relationship with the supernatural and is usually called to the profession Ritual A patterned form of behavior with a relation to the supernatural realm Rituals can be performed periodically or nonperiodically and can take forms such as life cycle rituals inversion rituals and sacrifices Rites of Passage A life cycle ritual which moves an individual from one stage of life to the next such as child to adult Religious Pluralism The concept that multiple religions can exist and be equally valid World Religions A third of the world subscribes to Christianity but other groups like Islam and Hinduism constitute large chunks of the world s population Syncretism Cultural and religious blends occurring due largely to acculturation Proselytizing Religions Religions which attempt to gain new converts through missionaries etc Lecture 5 September 10 Vocabulary Fetish An object which has magical properties sometimes thought to contain a spirit Used magically but not worshipped Shave a method of achieving witch status by which a person is involuntarily possessed by a non human spirit Muti achieving witch status by apprenticeship to a known witch and consumption of certain medicines Lecture 6 September 15 Vocabulary Communication The conveyance of meaningful messages via both verbal and nonverbal cues Language A symbolic communication system with meanings assigned in an arbitrary fashion Language is capable of infinite productivity and displacement Linguistic Anthropology The study of

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