SC ANTH 102 - Social Ties and Kinship (5 pages)

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Social Ties and Kinship



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Social Ties and Kinship

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Lecture number:
23
Pages:
5
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Course:
Anth 102 - Understand Other Cult
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

ANTH 102 1nd Edition Lecture 23 Outline of Last Lecture Video about Dominican family in NYC I II III IV V Family Work Moving to the USA Economics Lifestyle changes Outline of Current Lecture Social Ties I II III IV V VI Social Ties That Bind a Relatedness i Socially recognized connections ii Forms of relatedness Kinship a The idea of being related to another individual or group b Set of principles govern c Kinship principles Universal Kinship Features Mapping Kinship Relationships a Ego Kinship Descent a Tracing kinship relationships according to parentage b A few ways to account for descent i Unilineal 1 Patrilineal 2 Matrilineal a Matrilocal ii Bilineal 1 Neolocal c What is lineage d Most common form of descent is unilineal 60 Households a Definition These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute VII VIII b Different kinds of households c Intrahousehold dynamics i Revelation of power dynamics between parents and children and among siblings ii Dissolution of households through Adoption a Reasons for adoption b Legalized in USA since mid 1800s Changing Standards Current Lecture Social Ties I II Social Ties That Bind a Relatedness i Socially recognized connections ii Forms of relatedness 1 Friendship 2 Marriage 3 Adoption 4 Descent from common ancestor 5 Co residence Kinship a The idea of being related to another individual or group b A cultural universal c Sets of rules regulating relationships and appropriate behavior between kin d Kinship best thought of as complex system of relationships and the behaviors that govern them e Framework for understanding mating birth and nurturance f Offers culture specific theories of human nature defining how people develop from infants into mature social beings g Set of principles govern i How to reproduce legitimate group members marriage and or adoption ii Locality post marriage residence rule iii How to forge links between generations descent or adoption iv How to pass on social positions succession or material goods inheritance h Kinship principles i Define social groups ii Locate people within those groups iii Position people and groups in relation to one another in space and over time i Kinship is part and parcel of ideology modes of production and reproduction j III IV V Kinship relations and practices both shape and are shaped by socialization processes k While having core principles kinship systems are also dynamic and respond to change Universal Kinship Features a Lengthy infant maturation requires commitment from one usually two parental figures b Consensual unions marriage create enduring socially regulated sexual and domestic relationship c Gender based division of labor d Prohibition on sexual relations or marriage between close kin Mapping Kinship Relationships a b Dr Simmons uses octagons for females c Ego represents who we are tracing who we are interested in Kinship Descent a Tracing kinship relationships according to parentage b A few ways to account for descent i Unilineal 1 Patrilineal a Kinship is traced through the male line b Only male children are considered members of kin lineage c Found in 44 of world cultures i India East Asia Middle East Northern Africa 2 Matrilineal a Kinship traced through female line exclusively b Found in about 15 of all cultures c Usually found in horticultural societies like Native Americans central sub Saharan Africa Southeast Asia etc d Matrilocal or avunculocal residence pattern i When they marry stay at mother s brother s house ii Bilineal 1 Traces kinship from both parents 2 Found in less than 1 3 of the world s cultures a United States Europe parts of Southern Africa VI VII 3 Residence patterns neolocal a Once you marry you move away from the rest of your family and establish yourself elsewhere 4 Fits with small family units that are spatially mobile c What is lineage i A unilineal descent group whose members trace their descent from a common ancestor through an accepted sequence of known linking antecedents d Most common form of descent is unilineal 60 i Usually found in cultures with a fixed resource base such as crop land or herds ii Inheritance is through a particular line and helps maintain control of resource base iii Found most often with pastoralism horticulture and acriculture modes of production iv Matrilineal vs patrilineal depends on which gender controls the resources productive and reproductive and which has higher status v Matrilineal societies women have higher status patrilineal men have higher status Households a Unit of analysis comprised of individuals living alone or in a group who share living space and financial responsibilities for upkeep b Different kinds of households i Nuclear ii Extended iii Individually headed c Intrahousehold dynamics i Revelation of power dynamics between parents and children and among siblings 1 Security 2 Sharing 3 Violence ii Dissolution of households through 1 Divorce 2 Separation of cohabiting parents 3 Death of spouse or partner Adoption a Some form of adoption formal or informal in most cultures b Reasons for adoption i Infertility ii Desire to have children of a certain sex c Legalized in USA since mid 1800s VIII i Closed adoptions are the norm 1 Birth parent and child find it hard to search for each other court records are sealed ii Increasing trend in open adoptions too 1 Birth parents still potentially have access to their child Changing Standards a Later age for marriage especially in developed world b Cohabitation gaining in popularity c Changing practices new questions in caring for dependents members of the family i Tradition in southern USA to take grandparents into the home to care for


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