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FSU FAD 3271 - Draft Study Guide

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1FAD 3343 | Summer 2014Draft Study Guide and Prep Sheet for Examination 2(Chapters: 6-9)Chapter 6: Friends, Family, & CommunityPlease be familiar with or be able to define or identify the following concepts, terms, or illustrations:- Changes in the American family –post parental stageo Important transitions occur: widowhood, retirement, remarriage, and child’s departureo Transitions lead to: new ways of behaving, changes in self-concept, and shifts in interdependence with kin and community (changing relationships)o Later life is influenced by: culture and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic level, and past family patterns (such as whether the person was childless or a parent)- Sibling relationships bonds and ties o Sibling relationships are usually the longest relationships in an individual’s life. If you have a brother or sister, it’s likely that you’ll be a sibling from the time you are very young to either you or your sibling dieso There are as many different types of siblings as there are types of familieso Character of the relationship tends to be similar throughout life but becomes stronger in later life.o Baby boomers are the first cohort in history to have more siblings than children.o Sibling tie is less binding than marriage or parent/child, but is important. Bonds are reported to be second only to mother-child ties in intensity and complexity- Previous research on sibling contact –pg 155o Many older people have a sibling living nearbyo Sibling generally maintain contact with one another and contact increases with old ageo When an older people experiences the loss of a sibling, it is much more consequential than it might have been earlier in life Siblings hold shared memories, a common cultural background, and earlier experiences of family belonging  These qualities can never be shared by other family members As parents die, children grow up and move out, and health becomes frail, sibling bond endures and deepens- Benefit or disadvantage of having more sisters (females) and caregivingo Females maintain closer relationships with older family members than maleso “Ethos of Support” encourages stronger norms of support for women.2o Families with more sisters have an increased likelihood that parents—both fathers and mothers—will have assistance from their children o While having more brothers in a family decreases the likelihood among the men of being primary care provider for a frail parent/s, having more sisters increases the likelihood of being primary care providero Parents of daughters are more likely to have support in old age.- Reasons why grandparents become parents of their grandchildren and their experienceso About 60% of those over 65 have grandchildreno Four-generation families are becoming more commono People today are likely to become grandparents in their 50so Grandparents provide: Point of reference and identity for the grandchild Expansion of adult role models available to children A sense of historical and cultural rootednesso Grandparents can be playmates, storytellers, friends, advocates providers of unconditional support, or mentorso Differences in grand parenting styles Frequency of contact Activities engaged in with the grandchild Level of shared intimacy Amount of financial assistance provided- Dorothy Apple study discussed on pg 159.o In societies such as the US, where grandparents retain little control or authority over grandchildren, the relationship is friendly and informalo Others have likewise observed that north American grandparents, more than grandparents in other societies, engage in companionable and indulgent relationships with their grandchildren and usually do not assume any direct responsibility for their behavior- Distinguish between “confidant” and a “companion”o A confidant is someone to confide in and share personal problems witho A companion is one who regularly shares in activities and past timeso A companion may be a confidant, but not necessarily- Understand and be able to define what is meant by “convoy” and what convoy studies have foundo A study on social support networks uses a convoy model to provide detailed information showing that older individuals are in frequent contact with both family and friends3o The term convoy is used to evoke the image of a protective layer of family and friends who surround a person and offer supporto Convoys made up of those family and friends travel through time with the individual, with some members of the convoy traveling the entire wayo In the late 1980s, the average older convoy was reported in one major study of older persons to consist of about 9 members - “Femaleness Principle”o More older people are women, so more older women are available as friends and family memberso Women tend to be more engaged in network support activities across the lifespan than are meno Sex commonality principle — people tend to remain closer with same-sex children and siblings.o Women play more central roles I the network of unmarried people, a pattern referred to as the femaleness principle o Relationship norms are more powerful than sex norms — Children will provide support whether or not they are male or female.- Differentiate the role and meaning of “religiosity”, “spirituality” and “illness” and “positive mood”o Dimensions of religiousness Intrinsic — religion as a fundamental motive for living Extrinsic — religion for social purposes or to justify politics Spirituality — psychological sense of purpose and meaning Religiosity — interaction with organized religiono Those with high-intrinsic religiosity and spiritual well-being have more hope and positive moods.o Church and synagogue attendance is higher for older people than for younger people.o Culture and ethnicity influence religiosity.- Ethnic group difference in church as a support systemo More than 75 percent of all older African American adults are church members, and at least half attend religious services at least once a weeko Traditionally, religion and church have been powerful sources of social support for older African Americans Chapter 7: Intimacy and SexualityPlease be familiar with or be able to define or identify the following concepts, terms, or illustrations:4- Differences in older men and women and marriage o Slightly less than half of Americans 65+ are married and living with a spouse.o Marriage or remarriage at ages 55-69


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