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FSU FAD 3271 - Chapter 5- Perceiving

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!1!FAD3271 – Exam 2 Study Textbook Study Guide: Chapter 5- Perceiving Perceiving: a process of gathering information. - Individual & family information come from the process of perceiving - It is a active process of interpreting and giving meaning to the environment - Information or “input” is received through the body’s physical sensory mechanisms o This input forms an image and is interpreted for understanding = perception Perception: the process of meaningfully organizing sensations, or the process of how we assemble sensations into useable pictures/models of the world. - Perception is the individuals first stage of choice - Contains a feeling and a real wonder for life - Perceptions become the meanings, beliefs, and values that influence individual and family actions/ decision making - The human mind processes perceptions of input from the environment and adapts in 2 ways: (1- assimilation, 2- accommodation) o Assimilation: the process where the mind receives an information input from the environment  There is already existing knowledge of the information, a familiar pattern already exists  The information is placed into an “existing category” o Accommodation: the complementary process when the environment influences the person and prompts the mind to change its internal functioning in terms of the external world  An individual see’s something that does not fit into an existing category, the internal functioning changes to create a new category= accommodation - The complementary process of assimilation and accommodation form a dynamic equilibrium while regulating cognitive activity. - Social factors such as language, cultural background, customs, attitudes filter perceptions o Learning a new language/ new cultural backgrounds ext… will expand our social perceptions - Individual factors such as personal history, personal abilities and experiences also effect our perceptions “lens” Process of Perception: Cognitive Maps - Cognitive Map/ Mental Map: are images about an area or an environment developed by an individual on the basis of information or impressions, which the individual receives, interprets, codes, and stores. o Simply the interpretations or pictures in our mind o Mental maps include the emotional meaning of the setting or context - Age is an important factor in developing factor in perception; broadens with age - How individuals perceive the environment and how they perceive themselves are related - Field Independent: people are highly sensitive to stimuli from their own bodies. o Remain independent!2!- Field dependent: people who are highly sensitive to the environment and rely on others for guidance - Internally directed people perceive themselves as being able to control a situation - Externally directed people believe that fate has preordained what will happen, and the powerful “others” and or environment conditions will control the situation o The perception of internality or externality is believed to be developed early in life within the family setting - Certain stimuli influence the way patterning and organization occur in the process of perceiving: o Proximity: ex. Students sitting together in a classroom are perceived as members enrolled in the class o Similarity: ex. All dogs, regardless of breed/ appearance are dogs o Continuity: ex. Pictures in a story book placed in a series of a continuous pattern are assumed to be part of one story o Closure: ex. Tendency to form shapes with minimal cues. An drawing of a unfinished face o Contiguity: occurring simultaneously or in close proximity in time and space, lake Michigan’s contiguity to the state of Michigan. - 5 interrelated processes that occur almost simultaneously during perception: o Affect: emotional impact of perception o Orientation: becoming acquainted or familiar with any situation o Categorization: developing categories for similar objects and events o Systematization: identification of regularities in the environment o Manipulation: active process of the perceiver, design the environment and create change - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: o 1- physiological needs: thirst, hunger, safety, love o 2- safety needs: protection from dangers in the physical environment o 3. Belonging/ love: individuals needs for close, emotionally and relationships o 4. Esteem: desire for self respect, self esteem, and esteem for others o 5. Self actualization: highest of needs, realization of ones potential and ideals - Ch 6. – Space & Time - Space: the 3D expanse in which events, actions, and processes occur and in which energy and matter exist - Territoriality: the emotional attachment to and the defense of home ground - Privacy: what information an individual communicates with others - Personal space: the zone of privacy and separation from others our culture or physical circumstances require or permit - Activity space: within an area which we move freely during our daily activities - Awareness space: knowledge of opportunity locations beyond normal activity space, is minimal, distorted and sometime absent - Fixed featured space: refers to the physical space organized by unmoving boundaries, often referred to as psychological boundaries - Semi-fixed feature space: refers to flexible space created by the arrangement of furniture and other movable objects!3!- Informal space: refers to the way people handle the individual or spatial needs according the situation - Intimate space: allows closeness and encourages expressions of behaviors such as hugging, whispering, and talking softly - Personal space: encourages interpersonal discussions, decision-making, conflict resolution, and the sharing of emotions - Social space: usually used by small groups to engage in social or business conversations, often used when introducing individuals - Public space: allows for short discussion/ greetings from a distance. Also designated for public speaking or some type of public forum Time & Relationships: - 3 domains that closely relate to individuals and family systems: o 1. Individual time o 2. Social time o 3. Cultural time - Perception of time is closely linked to: o Time sense o When a person is alarmed/ exposed to danger o Pain


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