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FSU FAD 3271 - Perceiving

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Perceiving (Chapter 5 + lecture)• Factors influencing perception1. Self Concept/Esteem2. Perceiving: to attain awareness or understanding of/to become aware of through the senses3. Perception: a result of perceiving4. Filtering-Self Concept/Esteem: People’s perception of themselves-Kitten looks into a mirror and sees a lion-Perceiving:Seeing an image  Taking in sensory stimulation (input)  Organization of materials (process)  Some type of action (output)Product of Service  Perceiving  Thinking  Acting -Perception: process of meaningfully organizing sensations to gain useable picture of world-Perceiving: active process of interpreting and giving meaning to the environment-Filtering: Process involves- 1. Physical Factors2. Social Factors3. Individual FactorsPhysical Factors: Information from environment is received through the body’s physical sensory mechanisms. Input forms an image and is interpreted for understanding.Social Factors: Perceptions- filtered through the social system; Language limits and influences meanings we establish.Individual Factors: Abilities and experiences influence a person’s meanings and interpretation processes; Assumptions about human behavior, Expectations, Knowledge, Personal Moods• Assimilation: Individual receives input from the environment; There is existing knowledge of the information; Person takes information, identifies it, and places into existing category-Picture of a zebra• Accommodation: Environment influences person and prompts mind to change its internal functioning in terms of external world; a person sees something that doesn’t fit into an existing category and must make a new category for it. -Picture of a zebra and a white horse mix• Cognitive maps: A mental representation of one’s physical environment. -Collection of beliefs, experiences, and information that a person uses to orient himself or herself within an environment such as a social setting.• Field dependence vs. independence-Field Dependent: people who are field-dependent are frequently described as being very interpersonal and having a well-developed ability to read social cues and to openly convey their own feelings.-Field Independent: individuals who are field-independent use an “internal” frame of reference and can easily impose their own sense of order in a situation that is lacking structure. They are sometimes described as impersonal and task-oriented. -Women are more likely to be field-dependent and men are more likely to be field-independent• How do we attach meaning to our experiences?-Meaning comes from our interactions with objects – not from objects themselves. -Meaning is negotiated through use of -language . -3 STEPS USED TO ATTACH MEANING TO EXPERIENCES: 1. Selection 2. Organization 3. Interpretation:o Selection: (intensity, repetition, & motivation)o Organization: Arrange data in a meaningful way; Age of perceivero Interpretation: Factors influencing interpretation -Assumptions about human behavior-Expectations-Knowledge-Past experiences-Personal moods• Physiological Influences on perception-Taste-Temperature-Touch-Loudness-Vision-Odor• Rules to guide perception: Perception has 4 Characteristics1. Cognitive 2. Emotional 3. Individual 4. PhysicalPerceiver affects what is perceived. Environment in which perception occurs is important. Sense organs are not as important as integration of processing functions.o Maslow’s Hierarchy• Gender differences: a gender difference is a distinction of biological and or physiological characteristics typically associated with either males or females of a species in general.• Characteristics of Perceptual organization1. Closure 2. Contiguity 3. Continuity 4. Proximity 5. Similarity-Proximity: Stimuli or objects close together are perceived as part of the same groupExample: Nine squares placed without proximity = they are perceived as separate shapes- When squares are given close proximity, unity occurs = they continue to be separate shapes, but are now perceived as 1 group-Similarity: Stimuli or objects with similar characteristics (size, shape, color, or form) tend to be grouped together.-Example: The 11 distinct objects appear as a single unit because all of the shapes have similarity; Unity occurs because the triangular shapes at the bottom of the eagle symbol look similar to the shapes that form the sunburst-ANOMALY = When similarity occurs, an object can be emphasized if dissimilar to others; the figure on the far right becomes focal point because it is dissimilar to the other shapes-Continuity: stimulus or objects that seem to form continuous patterns are perceived as wholeExample: Continuity occurs because viewer’s eye will follow a line or curve. The smooth flowing crossbar of the “H” leads eye to the maple leaf-Closure: stimuli that seem to form part of a whole tend to be perceived together as if the total pattern were there.-Example: When the viewer’s perception completes a shape, closure occurs. Although the panda is not complete, enough is present for eye to complete the shape.-Contiguity: stimuli occurring in close proximity in time and space; something touching or in contact-Example: Contiguous states in U.S.; Scandinavia• Perceptual blindness: -Visual system can focus on only one or very few objects at a time-Brain is fills gaps and compiles a cohesive portrait of reality based on a flickering view-Visual attentiveness- limited resources-More information than you can analyze and process-In deciding what to focus on, the brain essentially only takes in that informationSymbolic Interaction (Reading + lecture)• Basic assumptions: -We understand and relate to our environment based on the symbols that we know or learn. -We react to something according to the meaning that thing has for us. -We learn about meaning through interactions with others, we make value judgments. -We interpret what’s learned, we aren’t passive. -We must have a sense of self to interact with others based on our meaning of situations.-Infants are asocial, develop sense of self as they interact, not born with temperament. -Sense of self motivates future behavior, we reflect on experiences and use them as guide. -We are born into environment with symbols and values assigned at birth.-We are influenced by cultural norms, values, and changing societal expectations.-We learn rules and values of society through everyday interactions within our culture• Symbols,


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