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FSU FAD 3271 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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FAD 3271—Exam 3/ Study Guide Communication-Interactive Environment (Chapter 11 + lecture)• Characteristics of Communicationo Communication is a symbolic transaction process that involves creating and sharing meaning Communication is essential for continuing relationships All behavior is communicative In communication, the message is not necessarily what is received: hearing vs. listening-• Hearing is passive• Listening is actively thinking  Communication takes place: Internal and External *Family communication is NOT random; it is repetitive and transactional, it is impossible NOT to communicate Social media is a fundamental shift to how we communicate• Verbal Communication /K.I.S. Statementso Verbal communication is sounds, words, language and speaking Words influences emotions, sense of recipients, and messages that are received 2 types: interpersonal & public speaking• Interpersonal: asking a question• Public speaking: talk in front of a classo K.I.S. Statement: generally unwise to awaken a slumbering member of the canine family. For example: “let sleeping dogs lie” If your initial efforts are unsuccessful, perseverance will eventually lead to a satisfactory conclusion.• Nonverbal Communicationso Nonverbal: physical ways (tone, touch, smell, and body motion); Used to repeat or accent a verbal message and then complement that message. Nail biting: nervous or insecure Drumming fingers: impatience or restlessness Open palms: innocence or sincerity Rubbing both hands: anticipation or impatience Head tilted to one side: interest/ listening *Non verbal messages are in the setting that they are in by use of Chronemics Body/Setting is the nonverbal message and environmental context.• Chronemics: use of time (pause or silence) o Ex: talk really slow; boring talkerso Mono-chronic: do one thing at a time Time commitment is important These people adhere to plans, individualist, think of time as discrete, and emphasize promptness. *What time mode predominates in USA? Mono-chronico Poly-chronic: do many things at once Ex: in the U.S.A. people text and drive These people are collectivist, think of time as fluid, work and personal time overlap, emphasize familiarity• Proxemics: use of perception of spaceo Example: preachers or lawyers *Chronemics and Proxemics are produced by broad settings• Cultural differences in nonverbal communicationo Appearance, body movement, posture, facial expressions, eye contact and gestureso Reasons for disliking a handshake: 62% germs  prefer hugs 2%o The “okay” sign can mean something bad in Latin Americano V for victory palm facing in or outward• Elements of communication process :o Message: information between the sender and the receiver; feelings, ideas, and suggestions.  Factors influencing a message or from the communicator :• Gender, appearance, posture, mannerism, tone, facials, furnish our surroundings 4 parts of a message:• SUBJECT telling WHO the action of the message is about.• PREDICATE telling the receiver WHAT is being done. • OBJECT showing to WHOM the action is directed. • the content of the action.o Medium: ways the message is presented to the recipient o Recipient: receiver of the message; depends on their interpretation of the message The communicator must understand the receiver and be aware of the context in which the receiver or audience will take in a message. • Gender & communicationo The communicator creates and sends messages Try’s to convey a message of some sort Ex: job interview- they look at how you’re dressed, posture, etc.o Rapport talk: mainly a women’s role Expresses more feelings & emotions; more pauses, self-disclosure, nodding, lean out & listen; displays both positive & negative emotions.o Raport: mainly a men’s role Less expressive, defends independence by distance & avoidance; speaks louder, jokes, not much eye contact, more interruptions.• Family influences on communicationo Family of origin: (parents, siblings) little phrases that mean things Explicit rules: don’t talk about this; don’t do this• Easier to understand• Ex: Children can have friends over when parents are home; finish homework before you go out Implicit rules: learned as you grow up not to say this• More difficult to understand (invisible rules)• Ex: some families have rules against sharing negative feelingso Functions of rules: what can be said, how it can be said, and to whom it can be said.o *Androgyny: the human capacity for members of both sexes to be masculine and feminine in their behaviorso *Androgynous communication orientation: person oriented; family members evaluate issues on their merits without reference to the gender of the people involved. Prizes flexibility, interchangeable gender expectations.o *Communication rules set limits for cohesion and adaptability within in the family• Family Communication patterns: change over time.o Horizontal chain: negotiable rules; everyone has equal status Ex: when one sibling ask for something of another; when a parent and child work out a problem together.o Vertical chain: non-negotiable rules (ex: curfew); power differences influence communicationo Circle chain: member comes to rely on one person for information. (Ex: father and mother control chain and pass orders to children; if one person hit on faculty member in a dept., it goes to another, and to another etc.)o Y: central person; a person who facilitates communication to other (pivotal person; middle man)o Wheel: central person but allows more exchanges in other areaso Gap: two people in the family that don’t speak; lack of information flowo Network: everyone talks to everyone in the family (open boundaries)o Tier: divided by generations (siblings talk to siblings; grandparents talk to grandparents); hierarchy• 3 factors that contribute to evolution of family communication patterns:o Family of origin influenceso Family communication ruleso Communication framework• Characteristics of family communication :o Verbal and nonverbalo Specific to the relationship in the systemo Its reciprocal and interactiveo Often predictableo Contains both content and feeling messageso Defines relationshipso Can be changed my forces within the systemo May stimulate change in the systemStress Change & Adaptation (Chapter 12 + lecture)• Stressor: a stimulus or event with potential to


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