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FSU FAD 3271 - Exam 2

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Exam 2 (Chapters 5-8)Perceiving, Spacing, Valuing, DecidingPerceiving- Perception- Process of meaningfully organizing sensations, or the process of how we assemble sensations into a useable “picture” or model of the world. Example: Do you see the old lady or young woman in picture.- Self-Concept- People’s perception of themselves (self-esteem is how high or low you perceive yourself)- Perceiving- Active process of interpreting and giving meaning to the environment.- Perceiving:o Seeing image ->o Taking in sensory stimulation (Input) ->o Organization of materials (Process) ->o Some type of action (Output)- Filtering: (Process involves)1. Physical Factors - Information from environment through senses2. Social Factors - Language limits & influences meanings we establish. Cultural differences and acceptance.3. Individual Factors - Personality, temperament, birth order, self-concept, expectations, personal moods, assumptions about human behavior, knowledge- 3 Steps to Attach Meaning to Experiences:1. Selection - a. Intensity- loud, tall, short, extreme casesb. Repetition- annoying over and over noisec. Motivation- Anxious about time: notice clocks. Hungry: Notice foods. Single: check out people. 2. Organization- a. Arrange data in meaningful way b. Age of perceiver (When is old, old? Depends on who you ask.)3. Interpretation- a. Past experiences- bad or good experiences with doctors, dentist, mechanics, opposite sex etc.b. Assumptions about human behaviorc. Expectations- Assumptions shape expectations. d. Knowledge- Knowing what a person is going throughe. Personal Moods- Insecure, etc.- Physiological Influences on Perception:1. Taste - Salty, Sour, Sweet, Bittera. Varies with age2. Odor- good, bada. Smells ignite memoriesb. Varies by age or gender (Men and children prefer sweet)3. Temperature- Different sensitivities to temperaturea. People from north not so affected by “Florida cold”4. Touch- Touched by kindness, hugs 5. Vision- Sighta. Differences between glasses and contacts6. Loudness- music, sounds7. Others- a. health (cold, sick)b. tiredc. heightd. personalitye. hungryf. morning people/night peopleg. culture- Interpretation- Gaining Meaning:o Assimilation Individual receives input from the environment There is existing knowledge of the information Person takes information, identifies it & places into existing categoryo Accommodation Environment influences person & prompts mind to change its internal functioning in terms of external world.  A person sees something that doesn’t fit into an existing category & must make a new category for it. - Characteristics of Perceptual Organizationo Proximity - Stimuli or objects close together are perceived as part of the same groupo Similarity - Stimuli or objects with similar characteristics (size, shape, color or form) tend to be grouped together Objects can be emphasized if dissimilar to others (anomaly)o Continuity - Stimuli or objects that seem to form continuous patterns are perceived as wholeo Closure - Stimuli that seem to form part of a whole tend to be perceived togetheras if the total pattern was there When viewer’s perception completes a shapeo Contiguity- Stimuli occurring in close proximity in time & space; something touching or in contact Contiguous states in U.S. (not Alaska or Hawaii) Scandinavia (Norway, Denmark, Sweden)- Perceptual Blindness:o Visual system can focus on only one or very few objects at a timeo Brain is fills gaps & complies a cohesive portrait of reality based on a flickering viewo Visual attentiveness- limited resources More information than you can analyze or process In deciding what to focus on, the brain essentially only takes in that information- Rules:o Perception has physical, cognitive, emotional, & individual characteristicso Perceiver affects what is perceivedo Environment in which perception occurs is importanto Some organs are not as important as integration of processing functionsSymbolic Interaction- Origins of symbolic interactionismo Early 1900so Industrial Revolutiono Pragmatist Philosopherso Meaning comes from our interactions with objects- not from objects themselveso Meaning is negotiated through use of languageo People can change society through communication & interaction- Principal Scholarso George Herbert Mean  How we develop our sense of self:- Play Stage- Practice, imitate, imagine role of only 1 person at a time- Game Stage- Understand many perspectives, family roles, group fit- Generalized Other- Predict how behaviors affect society, understand normso Charles Horton Cooley  Looking-glass self:- How we think other people perceive us.o William Isaac Thomas  Family has role in socialization Definition of situation, different interpretations Subjective opinion valued, has real consequence - If someone thinks that their partner is cheating on them, there will be consequences in their relationshipo Herbert Blumer  1st to use phrase “symbolic interactionism”- Basic Assumptionso We understand & relate to our environment based on the symbols that we knowor learno We react to something according to the meaning that thing has for uso We learn about meaning through interactions with others, we make value judgments Choosing friends or partners Peer pressure Safety purposeso We interpret what’s learned, we aren’t passiveo We must have a sense of self to interact with others based on our meaning of situationso Infants are asocial, develop sense of self as they interact, not born with temperamento Sense of self motivates future behavior, we reflect on experiences & use them asguideo We are born into an environment with symbols & values assigned at birth Names (boy or girl) pink or blue  red- stop, beware, powerful, hunger  pink- breast cancer awareness white- purity, brides Garnet & gold- Seminoles! Gang colorso We are influenced by cultural norms, values, & changing societal expectations Wife=kitchen, cleaning, kidso We learn the rules & values if society through everyday interactions- Symbolso Learned through interactingo Based on the way we see others using them Example: Peace sign used to be radical and protest now peace symbol is just a “nice symbol” o May not be the same in different situationso Based on context of current environmento Brand Name Clothes Express  Quality Status American made vs. others Good cause


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