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FSU HFT 2890 - Ch. 16: Southeast Asia and Its Islands

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Exam 3: Ch.ʼs 16-20Ch. 16: Southeast Asia and Its Islands•Geography:•Southeast Asia includes the countries of Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Malaysia on the Asian continent, and the island nations of Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Polynesia.•Mountains cover much of the norther section of the continent•Monsoons deliver the the heavy rainfall that is important for growing rice•Rice is the foundation of these regional diets•The warm and moist climate enable farmers to grow lots of tropical and sub-tropical fruits and vegetables•The most common are coconuts, mangoes, papayas, citrus, bananas, greens of many types, chilies and other peppers, and tomatoes•Freshwater and ocean fish are also common to the diet•If religion does not prohibit it, chickens, ducks, beef, and pork are included in the diet•Spices grow in many parts of southeast Asia•History and Culture:•Mons- people native to Burma•The original inhabitants of this region were conquered by invaders from different directions throughout history•Kublai Khan came from the north in the 13th century, China from the east at various times, and Europeans and Arabs from the West before the 18th century•Khmers- people native to Cambodia•There also were numerous battles between the native groups, particularly between the Khmer, Thai, and Burmese.•Thailand managed to remain independent from invaders from afar, but Burma and the peninsula of Indochina were ruled by foreign powers during the colonial era (notably by the French, British, and Dutch).•Hmongs- people native to the northern hill regions of Laos•Religions:•Religion plays a significant role in the countries throughout Southeast Asia•Buddhism is prominent, particularly in the nations on the continent•Hinduism is dominant on the Indonesian island of Bali and is practiced to a lesser extent in neighboring countries•Islam is the major religion in the Malay Peninsula and much of Indonesia as well as the southern island region of the Philippines•Catholicism dominates in most of the Philippines (from Spanish control) and is practiced by some minorities throughout the region•The Arts:•Longyi- Long, sarong-like cloth worn in Burma, tucked in at the waist; can be hiked up in very hot weather•The art and dances of Southeast Asia frequently have religious inspiration.•Intricate designs in handicrafts cary quite a bit from country to country, but clearly interconnect the various cultural groups.•Bright colors and generous use of gold contribute to the dazzling impact of many buildings, native costumes, carvings, and jewelry.•Food Patterns:•eating style varies a little by country•The Vietnamese prefer chopsticks, while the rest of the region eat using fingers of the right hand•Rice is the backbone of the diets•Wheat is also prominent in meals in the forms of noodles and breads•Chicken, duck, eggs, pork, fish, and soybean products (tofu and tempeh) are sources of protein in diets, the specific choices being determined by religious dictates for some people. •Congee- rice gruel often served at breakfast in Southeast Asia•Tropical fruits and vegetables are used generously; often chilies and many indigenous spices and herbs are added to dishes to create unforgettable flavors (and heat)•Sauces utilizing soy, coconut milk, or fish as principal ingredients form the basis for creating many of the recipes of the region.•Nuoc Mam- fermented salted fish sauce popular in Vietnam•Nuoc cham- Vietnamese condiment made with chili peppers, citrus juice, garlic, onions, and vinegar•Nam pla- fermented fish sauce popular in Thailand•Kapi- Thai salty, dried shrimp paste•Patis- fermented salty fish sauce popular in the Philippines•Adobo- Filipino stew using meats marinated in vinegar seasoned with bangoong, fried with onions and garlic, and then stewed•Cocido- Hearty Filipino stew containing a variety of meats, Spanish sausage, chickpeas, saba (sweet cooking bananas), tomato sauce, and lard•Coconut Cream- puréed and strained creamy liquid prepared from freshly grated white meat of mature pared coconut and some hot water•Coconut Milk- coconut liquid similar to coconut cream, but with more liquid•Coconut Water- Liquid drained from fresh coconut by puncturing its eyes; used as a beverage, but not as a cooking ingredient•Poe (poi)- starchy paste of boiled and pounded peeled taro root; popular in Polynesia.Ch. 17 China•Geography:•A very densely populated nation in Asia, China extends across approximately 1/6 of the world from east to west•Geographically, it includes part of the Himalayas, other mountain ranges, the Gobi and other deserts, high plateaus, river valleys, and a long seacoast that reaches into tropical regions•The combo of many people to feed, much land unsuited to farming, and widely varying rainfall from year to year sometimes has led to serious food shortages even though the land can produce a wide variety of crops in good years•Kaoliang- sorghum (grain) crop grown in norther China•History and Culture:•Opium War- ward in 1840 caused by British involvement in the opium trade in China; resulted in the long-term lease of Hong-Kong to Britain•Boxer Rebellion- Violent uprising of a secret sect that trapped foreigners and missionaries in Peking for 2 months in 1900•Kitchen god- Spirit of the hearth who determines wealth and longevity of people in the household; reports to Heaven annually regarding the familyʼs behavior•Yin- passive principle including female, moon, earth, water, darkness, evil, poverty, and sadness; complementary balance to yang•Yang- positive principle including male, sun, heaven, fire, brightness, good, wealth, and joy; complementary balance to yin•The history of China goes back more than 600,000 years, with records available of events during the more than 20 dynasties that have ruled since 1766 BCE. •Some of the more prominent have been the Qin Shihuang, Han, Tang, and Ming•European trade encounters by ship began with the Portuguese who were followed by the French and British•The formation of the Republic of China with Sun Yatsen as president occurred in 1911, marking the overthrow of the dynastic form of rule•Communist rule has been under the leadership of various people during the 20th century, including Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping•The Cultural Revolution began in 1966 and lasted for 10 bad years, from which the people and


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