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FSU HFT 2890 - CHAPTER 11 – GREECE AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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CHAPTER 11 – GREECE AND THE MIDDLE EASTGREECE – TURKEY – THE LEVANTGREECE• Eastern Orthodox (form of Christianity): 98%• Athens• Official Language: Greek• Greece is known as the Cradle of Western Civilization• Democracy• Western Philosophy CRETE• Part of Greece• 5th largest island in the Mediterranean• Cretan Greek Dialect• Center of Europe’s 1st advanced civilization: MinoanTURKEY• Severe Earthquakes• Language: Turkish• Main Religion: Islam• Istanbul – Capital of Turkey (aka Byzantium and Constantinople) THE LEVANT• Geographical Features:• Mediterranean Sea• Peloponnesus Peninsula – Southernmost part of mainland Greece • Bosporus – Channel between Europe and Asia• Tigris River• Euphrates River• Shatt-al-Arab – Where the Tigris and Euphrates river come together and form the Persian Gulf• Persian GulfAGRICULTURE• GREECE:• Wheat, Corn, Rice• Grapes and Citrus• Olive Oil• Fish• Sheep • Feta cheese is made with Ewe’s milk(sheep milk) and in Greece feta cheese must be 70% ewe’s milk and it takes 3 months to cure • THE LEVANT:• Water is scarce• Corn, Fruit, Nuts• Tobacco, Cotton • Grapes, Figs, Olives, Citrus, Sesame, Bananas• Sheep, Cattle, ChickensFETA CHEESE• Sheep are used for dairy and meat• Spanakopita – “Spinach Pie” (has feta cheese in it)• Tyropita – Football shaped pita sandwich stuffed with all kinds of things (including feta cheese)• Greek Salad (has feta cheese on it)GREECE HISTORY / CULTURE• Minoan King Knossos’ Palace located in Crete (in Greece) – Destroyed by Title Wave• Minoans• Myceans• Spartans• Athenians• Macedonians• Romans• Ottoman TurksPELOPONESIAN WARS• These were wars between Athens and Sparta• The wars caused the decline of culture in Greece and they reshaped Ancient GreeceTURKEY• Hittites – first civilization in Turkey – They are known for being very advanced for the time• Phoenicians – took over after the Hittites• Lebanon• Sailors and Trade• Developed boats that allowed them to travel faster• Byzantine Empire• Easternmost part of the Roman Empire• Very powerful empire• Fell to the Turks/Islam• The Turks ruled for 200 years• When the Turks were ruling the religion went from being Christian to being Islam• The Ottoman Empire took over after the TurksRELIGIOUS IMPACT ON THE LEVANT• Greek Orthodox – mainly in Greece• Judaism – mainly in Jerusalem• Christianity – spread evenly• Islam – mainly in Turkey• There are different areas for all of the different religions to prayRELIGION• Greece = Greek Orthodoxy • Turkey = Islam • Whirling Dervish – Dance GREEK HOLIDAYS• Feast of St. Basil• New Year celebration• A Byzantine holiday tradition• Vassilopita – bread that has a hidden coin in it and if you get the piece with the coin then that means you will have good luck all year• Greek Independence Day• March 25th • Marks the struggle against the Ottomans and the religious event of the Feast of the Annunciation • Orthodox Easter• The feasting for Greek Orthodox Easter includes red-dyed Easter eggs and lamb roasted on a spitHAGIA SOPHIA• Located in Istanbul, Turkey• A dominant building • This huge domed church was built by Byzantine Emperor Justinian for Christian worship• It was converted to a mosque • Now it has been changed into a museumIRAN• Iran is known for its Beluga Caviar – which is harvested from sturgeon in the Caspian Sea (which is on Iran’s border)ALPHABETS• Greek• Hebrew• ArabicGREECE FOOD PATTERNS• Light breakfast – yogurt with honey• Hearty Lunch• Late Supper• Gyro – Pita stuffed with lamb• Moussaka – Layered eggplant, spiced meat filling, topped with Béchamel sauce FOODS• Pita• Lavosh• Phyllo• Falafel• Tahini• Tabouli• ShawarmaLAVOSH• Armenian Cracker Bread• Typically not crisp• Used as a wrapBAKLAVA• Phyllo, Butter, Honey, Nuts• Really richFALAFEL• Deep-fried ball or patty• Ground chickpeas and/or fava beans• Usually served in a pita• Lettuce• YogurtTAHINI• Paste of ground sesame seedsHUMMUS• Chickpeas, Tahini, Lemon Juice, Garlic, and Olive OilTABOULI• Salad that contains: Soaked bulgur wheat, minced parsley, mint, diced tomatoes, olive oil, and lemon juiceDOLMAS• Stuffed grape leaves• Rice with lamb and spicesTHE WINES OF GREECE• 3rd most mountainous country in Europe• Slopes or Remote Island• Volcanic Soil is good for growing grapes• Retsina• Addition of Pine Resin• A wine of the past• New Greek Wines: Alpha Estates• There have been major changes in the past 25 yearsCHAPTER 12 – NORTH AFRICANORTH AFRICA• Five Countries • Sinai Peninsula to Morocco• Linked by:• Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa• Sahara creates effective barrier• Cultural barrier to the rest of AfricaGEOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW• Egypt• Libya• Tunisia• Algeria• MoroccoSUEZ CANAL• The Highway to IndiaTHE MAGHREB• Northwest Africa• Tunisia• Algeria• Morocco• Barbary Coast• Berber – Inhabitants of Libya and Maghreb – known to be very “fierce fighters”MOROCCAN MOUNTAINS• Four Mountain Ranges:• The Rif• The Middle Atlas• High Atlas• Anti-AtlasAGRICULTURE• Little rainfall – therefore there is poor agriculture• Sahara Desert Oases • Sand StormsTHE NILE RIVER• Flows through 10 countries• North Flowing• Longest river in the world (over 4,000 miles)• Egypt has 22% of the Nile River• Nile River Valley – areas are much more fertile• Irrigation = Agriculture near the Nile River in Egypt• The Nile River ranges from 2-14 miles wide so there is a very small area for populationASWAN DAM• Positive effects:• It has stopped the flooding• Water storage• Hydroelectricity• 1-3 crops per year• Negative effects:• Changed the pollution in the area• Shows that with all advancements there will always be negative effects that come with the positive effects• Wheat• Corn• Dates• Water Buffalo or Donkeys and hand labor are used to farmSOURCES OF MEAT• Sheep• Goats• Camel: Brisket, ribs, loin hump is a delicacy • Limited Beef• Pigeons• Dovecotes – “home base for pigeons” – Some farmers along the arid northern coastlands of Africamaintain dovecotes that provide stylish homes for the birds• Bastila – a favorite specialty of Morocco that features pigeon as the main ingredient. It contains dates, nuts, and


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