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FSU HFT 2890 - Ch. 10: The Iberian Peninsula

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Ch. 10: The Iberian Peninsula•Geographic Overview:•Iberian Peninsula- a peninsula composed of Spain and Portugal forming the western part of Europe.•this region is shut off from the rest of the continent by the Pyrenees Mountains•The climate is quite varied, which allows production of a variety of crops. •Meseta- High central plain in Spain•is ringed by the Sierra Nevada Mountains.•Agriculture:•terrain and weather hinder agricultural efforts in both Spain and Portugal•wheat can be grown in the northern Meseta regions and some rice is grown where irrigation is possible.•In Portugal and Southern Spain, wine grapes are grown•Portugal is known for port and rosé wine and Madeira (sweet fruity wines produced on Madeira, the Portuguese island in the North Atlantic Ocean. •The Mediterranean climate of Southern Spain is well suited for growing olives and oranges.•History and Culture:•early destiny of the peninsula was shaped by the Romans, but when the Roman Empire collapsed, the peninsula was invaded by others•Germanic tribes and the Moors (Islamic invaders from Africa, Morocco)•Christian attempts to rid the peninsula of the Moors resulted in Portugal becoming a nation•The Christians eventually drove the Moors from Spain as well•El Cid- Spanish military hero who fought many battles for both the Moors and the Catholics, and freed Valencia from the Moors in 1094•Exploring and Colonizing:•Caravels- Sturdy vessels with lateen sails (triangular sails extended on a spar and flying from a rather low mast)•Prince Henry the Navigator- Portuguese leader who sponsored many voyages of exploration aboard caravels to very distant places•Magellan- Portuguese navigator who led the first circumnavigation of the world from 1519 to 1522, but died in the Phillippines during the trip•Bartolomeu Diaz- Portuguese navigator who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa) in 1488•Vasco de Gama- Portuguese navigator who opened trade routes to India in 1498 and 1502•Portuguese developed colonies for the purpose of trade•In Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella sponsored the voyage of Colombus.•he discovered the ʻnew worldʼ•Cortes- Spanish explorer in Central America, particularly Mexico, in the 16th century•Pizarro- Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in Peru in the 16th century and established Spanish dominance there. •The Inquisition:•Period when Spain required non-Catholics to convert or leave the country; torture was sometimes part of the imprisonment process in Spain, Peru, and Portugal•Franco- Spanish dictator for about 40 years in the 20th century•Language:•Despite frequent interactions between Portugal and Spain, each country managed to keep its own language•Portuguese in Portugal (and Brazil) and Castilian as the official language in Spain.•Religion:•the dominant religion in both countries is Catholicism•there are many old mosque remnants from when the Moors were a power •The Arts:•the architectural heritage of the Moors is seen throughout Southern Spain•Fado- Distinctive Portuguese musical form of the blues sung to guitar accompaniment•Food Patterns:•the extensive trading with distant parts of the world meant that exotic foods became a part of the meals when the adventurers came back from their trips•Corn, tomatoes, pineapples, potatoes, pumpkin, squash, beans, and coffee are examples of the foods that became part of the culture of Portugal•Tea and a wide variety of spices also came to Portugal because of these explorations•salted, dried cod became popular as it was eaten on the long voyages•Portugal:•Simple food pattern•Breakfast:•cup of coffee with milk or hot chocolate plus some bread and jam•milk is usually consumed at breakfast in one of these beverages and in the form of cheese at another time in the day•Lunch and dinner are quite substantial meals•Although the food is hearty, the meals are actually quite simple•Pork and fish are their main sources of protein•Pork sausages are popular, as well as smoked ham•most abundant form of fish is salted and dried•Bachalhau- salted, dried, cod•Peppers, garlic, onions, tomatoes, and potatoes are important vegetables in Portugal•Chorizo- sausage flavored with paprikas, and chilies that may be seasoned to be picante (hot) or dulce (sweet)•Flan- Baked custard dessert, usually containing caramel in both Spain and Portugal•Spain:•tends to be more adventuresome and fancy than Portugal•Breakfast:•could be a Churro (fried quickbread similar to a doughnut, but extruded into a fluted, thick stick, before frying) with strong coffee or hot chocolate•Paella- traditional rice dish colored and flavored by saffron and topped with cooked vegetables, seafood, and meats•Saffron- orange to yellow spice; the stigma of purple crocus; adds color and flavor to dishes•Cocido- stew consisting of 3 traditional parts (soup, cooked vegetables, and boiled meats) with the specific ingredients varying•Tapa- Small plate of tidbits of food designed for nibbling while having a drink in the late afternoon or early evening•Sopa de ajo- garlic soup popular in Spain•Gazpacho- chilled soup traditional in Spain; made with many chopped vegetables plus beef or chicken stock, red wine vinegar, and olive oil•Sangria- Red wine blended with fruit juices•Basques- Group living in the Pyrenees Mountains near the Bay of Biscay in northeastern Spain; some are seeking independence from Spain•Marmitako- Basque stew made with tuna and potatoes•Porrusalda- Basque soup that features potatoes and leeks•Bacalao al Pil-Pil- Basque dish made with salt cod served in a garlic sauceChapter 11: Greece and the Middle East•Geographic Overview:•Peloponnesus- Peninsula extending off the southwestern region of greece•Bosporus- Narrow channel that separates Europe from Asia between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea•near their coasts, Greece, western Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel have a climate moderated by the Mediterranean sea, but the rest of the Middle East has very hot summers except in the mountainous regions•agriculture is difficult to grow•Some livestock, like cattle and sheep are grown in this area•The Levant is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt". Includes Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan•Agriculture:•Greece-•more than half the land in Greece does not


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