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Yifan XuExamination TwoDispositional and Behavioral Theories1) Aside from twin studies, what are three methods often used by behavioral genetics researchers? Now select one of those methods and describe (a) how it is carried out and (b) what results would provide evidence for genetic factors. (5 points)Family Resemblance(a) Correlate personality similarities between people who are closely related like father and son, and people who are distantly related like mother and aunt.(b) There would be a larger correlation between the closely related family members, if genetics is important.AdoptionsGenetic ScanningTemporal Stability2) Aside from personality, what other aspects of people have behavioral geneticists studied usingthese methods? (3 points)IntelligenceMental IllnessCriminalityPhysical Health3) How do temperaments differ from other dispositions? Name the temperaments that have been discovered so far. (5 points)Temperaments are different from other dispositions because nature is much stronger than nurture.Activity LevelSociabilityImpulsivityEmotionality4) The BAS and BIS are two biological systems that seem to influence many behaviors. One system makes people sensitive to rewards, while the other makes people sensitive to punishments.Which system focuses on rewards? A different neurotransmitter is active in each system. Name the BAS and the BIS neurotransmitters. (3 points)The BAS (Behavioral Approach System) = rewards, neurotransmitter is dopamine.The BIS (Behavioral Inhibition System) = punishment, neurotransmitter is serotonin.5) MAO (Monoamine Oxidase) is just one of several hormones associated with specific patterns of behavior. Name two others. MAO is associated with sensation seeking. Do MAO levels tend tobe high or low in sensation seekers? (3 points)Yifan XuTestosteroneCortisolSensation seekers have low levels of MAO, producing a need for stimulation to reach the optimallevel of arousal.6) Factor analysis has been a very useful statistical tool for studying personality traits. Why? Name (in order) the major steps involved in performing a factor analysis. (7 points)Factor analysis is useful because it allows us to reduce many surface traits down to a much smaller number of underlying source traits.Step 1: Collect surface trait ratings from many judges.Step 2: Calculate correlations among those ratingsStep 3: Extract factors from the correlation matrixStep 4: Calculate factor loadingsStep 5: Review the loadings and name the factors7) Name the Big Five personality traits. How were they discovered? (6 points)1) Openness to Experience2) Conscientiousness3) Neuroticism4) Agreeableness5) ExtroversionThe Big Five was discovered by many researchers who performed factor analyses on different sets of surface traits, yet all found the same underlying source traits.8) Murray identified more than two-dozen psychogenic needs, but they can be sorted into severalbroad categories. What are they? Dr. Moreland noted that one of them is unusual, because it is seldom studied by psychologists. Which one? (7 points)AmbitionStatus DefensePowerAffectionInformation ExchangePossessions, this category is the unusual one.9) What is “press” according to Murray? How do alpha and beta presses differ? Which one has more impact on behavior? (4 points)“Press” is a force arising from objects or people that can affect goal achievement.Alpha press is the real environmental forces and beta press is the forces that are merely perceived.Beta press has more impact on behavior.Yifan Xu10) In the experiment by Watson and Rayner on “Little Albert,” classical conditioning was used to produce a mild mental illness in a young child. What was that illness? Name the conditioned and the unconditioned stimulus in the experiment. How did the researchers plan to cure the childof his illness? (4 points)The mental illness was a phobia of little white mice. The conditioned stimulus is the white mice and the unconditioned stimulus is the loud noise. The researchers planned to cure the child through extinction. 11) Provide real-world examples (not definitions) for (a) positive reinforcement; (b) negative reinforcement; (c) punishment; and (d) deprivation. (4 points)(a) Positive Reinforcement: giving a child a gold star after cleaning up their toys(b) Negative Reinforcement: taking away curfew from a teenager because they have been doing very well in school(c) Punishment: spanking a child for doing something wrong(d) Deprivation: giving a child a time out when not playing well with others12) Partial reinforcement can be administered using a ratio or an interval schedule. How do these differ? Which one generally produces better outcomes? (3 points)Ratio schedule is used after a certain number of behaviors and interval schedule is used after a certain amount of time. Ratio schedule produces better outcomes.13) Some behavioral theorists argue that observational learning is better than classical or operant conditioning. Why? What is the difference between the acquisition and the acceptance ofa new behavior? When will a behavior be accepted? (4 points)Observational learning is better because it is the safest.Acquisition is knowing how to do some behavior, whereas acceptance is actually doing that behavior.A behavior will be accepted when there are positive self-expectancies for it.14) What are the major steps in observational learning? Select one of them and explain how self-regulation might play a role in it. (5 points)AttentionRetentionProduction: Self-regulation means you can decide for yourself exactly what to practice, when and where to practice, how long to practice, and so on.Performance15) What is self-efficacy? Name (using his terms) three methods that Bandura has recommended for improving a person’s self-efficacy. Describe one of those methods briefly. Why is self-efficacyso important, according to Bandura? (6 points)Yifan XuSelf-efficacy is a general sense of personal competence.Performance Accomplishments: working in small steps toward working to the ultimate goal; build confidence by starting small, then doing progressively more challenging things.Vicarious ExperiencesVerbal PersuasionControl of ArousalPoor self-efficacy can cause many different mental health problems.16) Depression is associated with particular kinds of causal attributions for negative events. What is a “causal attribution?” What kinds of attributions for a negative event are most likely tomake someone depressed? (4 points)Causal

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