Pitt PSY 0160 - 5 Factor Model (4 pages)

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5 Factor Model

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5 Factor Model


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Pittsburgh
Psy 0160 - Psychology of Personality
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Personality Psychology Lecture 13 Outline of Last Lecture Factor analysis Step 1 5 Cattell 3 categories of source traits Ability traits Temperament traits Dynamic traits 16 PF Test Hans Eysenck Secondary factor analysis 3 factor model Super factors Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Measurement Psychopathology Outline of Current Lecture 5 Factor Model Cross cultural research NEO PI R test Costa and McCrea Growth and Development 6 factor model Evaluation Current Lecture Five Factor Model Big 5 Based on research evidence Emphasized influence of biology Focused on individual differences o How do people differ from each other o Is there a basic set of human individual differences Is there a set of traits that can describe everyone Costa and McCrea o Said big 5 structure is biologically based and that the structure is a human universal These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Factor analyses of 3 types of data o Trait terms in natural language don t use hard words to name traits o Cross cultural research Traits are cultural universals Emphasized biological nature of the 5 factors they are essential to survival so thus find the traits universally o Relation of trait questionnaires to other questionnaires assessment tools that look at traits and from other theory bases 5 factors o Continuum can be high low or somewhere in between 5 factors o These are enough to adequately describe someone s personality o Openness to experience what experiential life is like Vs closed to new experience o Conscientiousness goal directed behavior how well someone can deal with requirements of society impulse control Vs lack of direction o Extraversion Vs introversion o Agreeableness Vs antagonistic o Neuroticism Vs emotional stability Cross cultural research See if big 5 are universal Methodical problem translation o Different languages have different words for things or even words that translate may not mean the same thing DiBlas and Forzi 1999 investigated presence of big 5 in Italian language o Only 3 were replicated E A C o Neuroticism not replicated and not even found in Italian culture might be cultural difference in perception of moods and anxiety DeRaad and Peabody 2005 tested for big 5 in 11 different languages o Found E A C cross lingually recurrent o Think that some personality traits factors are unique to particular cultures NEO neuroticism extraversion openness Personality Inventory NEO PI R Measures 5 factors and 6 facets aspects correlate together and combine to make up overall factor o Table 8 2 in book shows facets that make up the overall factor Good reliability and validity Agrees with other Big 5 instruments scores from neoPI correlate highly with scores on other measures investigating big 5 Correlates with Eysenck s inventories and Cattell s 16 factors Integration of Theories Eysenck s E and N virtually identical to E and N dimensions of the Big 5 o Same in way theyre described and measurement of factors o Eysenck did secondary factor analysis too to make sure the two factors are statistically independent Eysenck s P psychoticism corresponds to combination of low C low A agreeableness NEO PI R relates meaningfully with Q Sort test o Things people use to describe themselves in Q sort cards with descriptors to say like me or not like me also relate to this test Costa and McCrea Big 5 more than descriptors Each factor is a universal structure Everyone has each psychological structure trait in varying amounts part of who we are Psychological structures traits causally influence psychological development Strongly state that 5 traits factors are NOT influenced by the environment strongest nature position possible Factors have a biological basis Differences linked to big 5 determined by genetic influences on neural structure and brain chemistry Problematic issues o How to link personality structures to personality processes Mechanisms for interaction between biology and personality aren t specified don t provide strong foundation for proving validating explaining why biology has such an effect o Claim that traits are not affected by social factors How can environment not influence Some research contradicts this and shows that factors are influenced by environment Extraversion increased recently more so than earlier times due to social changes in society o 5 factor theory claims everyone has all 5 factors Growth and Development longitudinal research Study same group of people at different periods of time Evidence of stability over long time periods Significant correlations among repeated measures Change evident despite stability Greater stability in adulthood than in childhood personality not set until people go through cognitive physical experiential changes in adulthood See changes in big 5 traits from younger adults to older adults o Become less open when get older o More conscientious when get older o Less extraverted when older o More agreeable when older o Less neurotic when older What accounts for differences across lifespan is it experience or cohort effect group of people the same age as you go through life the same way how something affects one age group is different than how it affects another o Isn t necessarily just age not an independent variable Is there personality change 6 Factor Model Big 5 model was consensus since 1980s Honesty Humility 6th factor Individual differences in the tendency to be truthful and sincere vs cunning and disloyal are a reliable 6th factor Validated across 7 languages Not yet incorporated into theory or research Evaluation Trait Theory Database excellent good at gathering data Systematic o Cattell yes o Eysenck kind of o Costa and McCrea not really Testable very good o Statistical foundation Comprehensive yes and no Applications o Yes assessment and predictions o Not strong clinical usefulness

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