Pitt PSY 0160 - Constructs (9 pages)

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Constructs



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Personality Psychology Lecture 17 Outline of Last Lecture George Kelly Invitational mood Constructive Alternativism Cognitive processes Personal constructs Constructs Outline of Current Lecture Constructs Similarity pole Construct pole Person as scientist Types of constructs Verbal Preverbal Submerged Core Peripheral Construct system hierarchy Range of convenience Focus of convenience REP Test Cognitive Complexity Bieri Linville Anxiety Fear Threat Growth and Development Psychotherapy Fixed Role Therapy Evaluation Current Lecture Constructs at least 3 elements required to form one Similarity pole 2 perceived as similar to each other Contrast pole 3rd element perceived as different from the other 2 things that are similar These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Similarity similarity contrast Can NOT form a construct by observing how things are the same Constructs are not dimensional no continuum between the poles they are separate o White and black with no gradients of gray in middle Person as Scientist Like scientists we o Develop theories o Test hypotheses o Weigh evidence o Are future oriented concerned about whats going to happen in future how what were doing now will affect future Use constructs to anticipate events When form constructs we approach it in scientific way Can try on different constructs and test them out and get rid of them if don t work or adopt if they do work Types of Constructs Verbal can be expressed in words can talk about them o Ex construct of good pizza has cheese sauce mushrooms onions etc o Ex construct of what it means to be good mom is caring listening etc o Ex construct of what will happen when I see my friends band play is that itll be fun etc Preverbal learned before the person develops ability to use language formed when very young o Similar to Freudian unconscious Submerged one end of a bipolar construct similarity vs contrast pole is not available for verbalization o To form construct had to have 2 similarities in similarity pole and 1 contrast pole one of poles is submerged and unable to talk about o Assumes that person once had access to pole but doesn t anymore Core basic to persons functioning if one were to change it could only be done with a lot of effort and it would have lots of consequence for rest of persons constructs o Foundational to who we are and how we see world predict events Peripheral less basic modified without much influence on overall construct system o Easier to change Construct System Hierarchy Superordinate broadest and most inclusive o Ex candy general and includes a lot of different kinds Middle level o Ex fruit flavored candy chocolate candy minty candy Subordinate more specific o Ex M Ms skittles gumdrops etc Constructs Range of convenience all those events for which application of the construct is useful o If have construct for cooperativeness then range of convenience is all situations where you can apply this construct o Every event for which a construct is applicable Focus of Convenience particular events for which the application of the construct would be maximally useful o In what situations would a particular construct s be most useful o Some constructs or more general vs specific Every construct has each of these Constructs interrelated if change one then it changes others Personality made up of construct system are who we are because of construct system that we use to define and understand our world Natural that people differ in their construct systems To get to know them have to know about their constructs and how they understand the world Assessment Repertory Test REP o 1 Person creates Role Title List List of specific people who fill various roles in test takers life 20 30 people generated based on roles they play o 2 Elicit constructs 2 3 people of people with certain roles picked out and ask person questions to elicit constructs that come to mind when they talk about this person that fulfills a certain role See how do you interpret this person want to get similarity and contrast information GOAL learning about test taker Cognitive Complexity Complex system many nonoverlapping constructs Greater complexity expertise increases individuals ability to make distinctions among events people Brains of people more cognitively complex are different than people whose aren t o Use same neural systems but brains of experts are more developed biologically more brain cells no data to back that up though Bieri Cognitively complex students people are o More accurate in predicting behavior of others o Better at recognizing differences between themselves and others o Less likely to conclude mistakenly that others would respond in the same way that they would themselves because they had more constructs were more able to consider that other people might behave differently High complex People Try to use inconsistent information when forming an impression Better able to understand and take on role of others better at having perspective More advantageous to be flexible allow new information even if its inconsistent with your construct so that you can create new constucts or modify old ones Low complex People Try to hang on to their constructs reject inconsistent information Commonly form an impression that is consistent by rejecting all information inconsistent with that impression Linville Higher levels of complexity serve as a buffer against stress Higher level complexity people o Better off emotionally when under stress stay more calm and can use rational thinking better o The existence of other life roles have more constructs and greater variability of constructs seemed to serve as a distraction that helped avoid prolonged negative mood don t over focus on negative emotion that comes with stress Overall research finding is NOT consistent If construct system is consistent Testable prediction made Fundamental Postulate anticipating events o Psychological processes channeled by way anticipate events If anticipated event occurs then prediction is upheld and construct is validated If anticipated event does NOT occur construct is invalidated needs to be changed modified dropped Similar to Piaget If construct invalidated Modify constructs only to make more accurate predictions Individual must develop new construct or loosen expand old construct to include the prediction of the event that took place Anxiety when


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