Pitt PSY 0160 - Factor analysis (4 pages)

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Factor analysis

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Factor analysis


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Pittsburgh
Psy 0160 - Psychology of Personality
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Personality Psychology Lecture 12 Outline of Last Lecture Trait Theory Trait Theorists Gordon Allport o Cardinal traits o Central traits o Secondary traits Raymond Cattell o Factor analysis Outline of Current Lecture Factor analysis Step 1 5 Cattell 3 categories of source traits Ability traits Temperament traits Dynamic traits 16 PF Test Hans Eysenck Secondary factor analysis 3 factor model Super factors Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Measurement Psychopathology Current Lecture Factor Analysis simplifies information contained in large table of correlations by distilling narrowing down what items go together Step 1 collect trait ratings from many people o More subjects more reliable data o A F items traits o Run correlation coefficients between people and traits o Ex Indecisiveness correlates high with depression brooding etc Step 2 calculate correlations among items traits These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Step 3 extract factors from the correlation matrix and see what seems to fall together o see correlation with each item with each factor we pulled out Step 4 calculate factor loadings Step 5 review the loadings and name the factors o Naming of factors is subjective o Conclusions about factor analysis come from high correlation between traits and factors o Loadings of 3 4 are considered significant Reduces multiple reflections surface base traits of personality to smaller sets of traits o Because some things do go together its not reasonable to analyze individualize but better to generalize o Want to be able to describe everyone with set of definitive traits Provides basis for arguing that some traits matter more than others Helps in developing assessment devices for personality Cattell 3 categories of source traits Source traits pull together surface traits to decrease number Ability traits skills that allow the individual to function effectively Temperament traits involved in emotional life o Cry easily vs not sensitive vs not Dynamic traits involved in motivational life can you easily get yourself focused on a task or not 16 PF Test Personality Factor There are 16 source traits Cattell developed in order to report how people see themselves based on these 16 measures source traits Continuum on one end there are really rigid and other are flexible Still used widely arguable that some of these source traits might be able to combine together to reduce the number of traits Some employers want to hire people with or without certain personality traits Therapists sometimes do this to get to know client Police screenings Cattell s legacy Theory is strongly founded based on systematic research efforts o Lots of subjects factor analysis validating theory 16 PF test widely used in applied settings Theory exerts little impact in contemporary personality science o 16 factor approach not parsimonious sparing restrained 16 source traits is too many and can condense them further o Theory based on measurement which is risky Hans Eysenck Took factor analytic method further based work off of Cattell s 3 factor model 3 factors that effectively describe everyone Emphasized biological foundation of personality Critical of psychoanalytic theory because he didn t think measures were reliable in terms of validity or demonstrating constructs Conducted factor analysis and secondary factor analysis to find super factors o Because factors are commonly correlated intercorrelations among factors can themselves be factor analyzed o Some of 16 traits that Cattell came up with are correlated thus important to do second factor analysis Secondary factor analysis used to identify a simple set of factors that are independent not correlated with each other o Super factors dimensions with two sides o If factors are statistically independent they are NOT correlated with each other Cattell s 16 factors correlate with each other thus aren t independent People can be divided into types based on 2 general personality dimensions from super factors o Introversion Extroversion o Emotional stability instability o directionally divided o High neuroticism low extraversion moody anxious rigid unsociable pessimistic quiet reserved sober o High neuroticism high extraversion touchy restless aggressive active excitable impulsive changeable optimistic o Low neuroticism low extraversion passive careful thoughtful calm peaceful reliable controlled balanced o Low neuroticism high extraversion sociable outgoing talkative responsive easygoing lively carefree leader Super factors Extraversion E o Pulls together lower level traits sociability activity liveliness excitability trait level Habitual response level I like to go to parties like being around lots of people Pull from trait level Specific response level observable things things people say about themselves Talk a lot vs not talk a lot Pull from habitual response level o Opposite is Introversion Neuroticism N o Emotional stability low neuroticism vs instability high on neuroticism o Pulls together lower level traits like anxiety depression shy moody Psychoticism P o Captures abnormal qualities including aggressiveness lack of empathy interpersonal coldness antisocial behavioral tendencies o Aggressive cold egocentric impersonal impulsive antisocial unempathetic creative Measuring super factors Eysenck developed simple self report items designed to tap into each of the factors Lie scale items yes no format look to see if person is giving true answers o Do you sometimes laugh at a dirty joke o Did you always do as you were told as a child Lemon drop test put lemon drop on peoples tongues o Objective measures o Introverts and extraverts differ in amount of saliva produced o Extraversion produce less saliva o Introversion produce more saliva o Suggests biological basis to individual differences maybe introverts that are more sensitive and responsive maybe that s why they don t seek out situations that are highly stimulating Cortical arousal objective measure o Introverts more cortical arousal to external stimuli noise activity o Extroverts less cortical arousal o more biological evidence Twin studies suggests heredity accounts for some differences in extraversion Psychopathology Neurotic symptoms biology environment Majority of neurotic patients high N low E scores Criminals and antisocial people high N E P

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