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A-State SOC 2213 - Social Interaction in Everyday Life

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Soc 2213 1st Edition Lecture 10 Outline of Last LectureI. Social ExperienceA. Socialization B. PersonalityC. Nature vs Nurture - Nature:- Nurture: C. Social IsolationA. Harlow’s B. Anna’s Dilemma II. Understanding SocializationA. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): The elements of personality1. Eros – life instincts Thanatos – death instinct.2. The personality includes three basic components:a. id (first occurs)b. ego (balance stage)c. superegoB. Jean Piaget (1896–1980): Cognitive development1. Piaget identified four stages of cognitive development:a. The sensorimotor stage (birth – 2yrs)b. The preoperational stage, (2yrs – 6yrs)c. The concrete operational stage, (7yrs – 11yrs)d. The formal operational stage, (12yrs – up)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.C. Lawrence Kohlberg (1981): Moral reasoning/developmenta. preconventionalb. conventionalc. postconventionalD. Carol Gilligan (1982, 1990): The gender /moral development1. Boys2. Girls.E. George Herbert Mead (1863–1931): Theory of the social self1. The self o A dimension of personality composed of self-awareness as well as self-image a. development of self b. social experience2. Dual Nature of selfo Two sided when it comes to being socializeda. “I” b. “Me”3. looking glass self 4. Development of selfa. Imitation/Play1. Significant others2. Generalized otherF. Erik H. Erikson (1902–1994): Eight stages/challenges of developmenta. Stage 1 — Infancy- the challenge of trust ( vs. mistrust)b. Stage 2 — Toddlerhood- the challenges of autonomy (vs. doubt and shame)c. Stage 3 —Preschool- the challenge of initiative (vs. guilt)d. Stage 4 —Preadolescence- the challenge of industriousness (vs. inferiority)e. Stage 5 —Adolescence- the challenge of gaining identity (vs. confusion)f. Stage 6 — Young adulthood- the challenge of intimacy (vs. isolation)g. Stage 7 — Middle adulthood- the challenge of making a difference (vs. self absorption)h. Stage 8 — Old age- the challenge of integrity (vs. despair)III. Agents of SocializationA. The family B. SchoolC. Peer groups D. Mass Media Outline of Current Lecture I. Social interaction – the process by which we act and react in relation to othersII. Social Structure- the cultural pattern of thought and action -Rely on sharing informationIII. Status- a social position that a person holds (what you do in everyday life, your identity) - Can have multiple statuses A. Status set- all of ones statuses together B. Ascribed and achieved statuses1. An ascribed status- one you achieve by birth ( son, daughter, sister, brother, ethnicity, race)-taken involuntary through life (born into it)2. An achieved status- a status that you have earned or created for yourself through talent or ability, reflects your ability and effort -College student is achieved status. -Can be a negative status (burglar, rapists, and murderer)C. Master status- the status that you are probably identified with the most. -This status often shapes your life. (Current identity: college student)IV. Role- the behavior of a specific status, what we expect out of that particular status. A. Role set- all of the roles togetherB. Role conflict and role strain- certain things that happen among the roles1. Role strain- the tension, the demand, among one role of a single status (mother role) expectations2. Role conflict- the same tension or demand, but is among the role of two or more statuses ( mother has another status, or role of employee). When one of the roles (mother) conflicts with another role (employee) Example: One day the child is sick and so the mother has the conflict of staying home and caring for the child, or going to work.C. Role exit- becomes, falls upon us as retirement. We leave our job to go to retirement.V. The Social Construction of RealityThe social construction of reality- the process by which individuals creatively shape reality through social interaction.A. “Street Smarts”- the lingo and knowledge one may obtain about the area they are involved in.- Knowing which neighborhoods not to walk down-Realize we have to socially react to being on the street where ever you are goingB. Thomas theorem- situations that are defined as real, are real in their consequences. Example- Johnny has been told since the beginning of high school that he is not “college material”, he grows up and takes skill classes and graduates high school, and immediately starts a job with his skills background and does not go to college. Simply because he has been told andhas had the mindset that he was not “college material”.C. Ethnomethodology- studies the way that people make sense of their surroundings through everyday interactions. Harold Garfield. D. Reality Building- people in different cultures/societies, experience reality differently. Social construction of reality. E. Importance of Social Media- social media often defines our construction.- Has an impact on our reality.VI. Dramaturgical Analysis: The “Presentation of Self” - Coffman, Urban - The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance- Shakespeare’s concept “we are actors in this life, it’s how we live”A. The presentation of self: a person’s effort to create specific impressions in the minds of others1. Dramaturgy/Performances:- Front and back stage- Back stage- people are there normal selves, comfortable, laid back- Front stage- stage you see when actors and actresses are playing the identity being portrayed  Front stage we put up a false image of what we’d like others to see Back stage we live life the way we want when there are no people around 2. Nonverbal communication: speaking without word but with gestures  culture specific (may not mean the same in other societies) very effective way to tell if someone is lying or telling the truth there are signs to tell if someone is lying such as- rapid eye movement, lowering of eye lids, twitches3. Idealization: performances everyday interactions usually idealize your intentions4. Embarrassment and Tact: Give off signs when we are embarrassed such as blushing,D. Gender effects:- Effects in three ways:1. Demeanor: male and females have a different demeanor2. Use of personal space: when we interact, reason why we usually have space between us when we talk, and don’t


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