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A-State SOC 2213 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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SOC 2213 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Chapters: 1-3Lecture 1 ( January 14 & 16)Chapter 1 Definition of sociology: It is the systematic study of human society. Sociological Perspective- how we view social phenomena- Seeing the general in the particular – seeing general patterns of behavior in particular people- Seeing the strange in the familiar - means that we see a strangeness in normal patterns or happenings Sociological imagination- it is the ability to see the intimate realities of our lives in the context of social structures. Applying the Sociological perspective – 1. Guides our laws and policies to shape our lives2. Leads to personal growth and expanded awareness3. Preparation for the work world Origins:1. 18th-19th century people began to think more about society and their role in it2. Three main reasons that sociology began to emerge as a new field of study:- 1. The growth in cities - 2. The industrial revolution- 3. Political change :The French revolution 3. August Comte - Contributions:1. Coined the term sociology and described this new way of thinking.2. Gave us a new way of thinking called Positivism 3. Is known as the Father of Sociology- He saw sociology as a product of three stages:1. Theological stage – this period was from the beginning of time to the end of the middle Ages 2. Metaphysical stage- Began with the Renaissance and ended with scientific progress– 3. Scientific stage- began with the early work of scientists, such as Galileo and Isaac Newton. In this stage Comte applied the scientific approach they used to analyze the physical world into analyzing society. - Positivism:It is a way of understanding based on science. It is a belief that society operates according to certain laws just as the physical world does, like the law of gravity. 4. What is a theory?- Theory: is a statement of how and why specific facts are related. The Three Theories- 1. S tructural functional theory - to make it simple this particular approach is a more biological approach and sees society as an organism which is the sum of its parts – each part of the organism has a specific function to the well-being of the whole. This approach is from the macro level- meaning that it sees the overall picture or that it sees society on a large scale. Structural functional theory believes that each part of a working society helps keeps that society running smoothly and promotes stability and harmony. This approach wants to know what keeps society together, how the parts are linked and what each part does to keep society working. - Another important aspect of structural functionalism is what we call manifest and latentfunctions. - Manifest functions –recognized intended functions- Latent Functions – unrecognized, unintended functions of a - 2. Conflict or social conflict theory: This approach sees everything in society as a stage set full of inequalities that can cause conflict and change. It highlights factors such as class, race, ethnicity, gender and age. It links these to inequalities in society such as the differences in money or power or prestige and the like. Comes from the works of Karl Marx and looks at society on macro level: A. Gender conflict theory- Feminism – conflict between men and women and support of equality for women- Harriett Martineau – first female sociologist – concerned about positionof women in societyB. Race conflict theory- race and ethnicity – inequalities and conflict between people of different races and ethnicities all over the world- WEB DuBois – saw sociology as key to solving societs- 3. Symbolic interaction theory: This theory sees society as a product of everyday interaction between individuals. It is a subjective approach in that in studies the symbolic meanings between people in their everyday interactions. This theory looks at society using the micro-level.How we do Sociology- 1. Terms: a. Concept - is a mental construct or picture that represents some part of the world in a simplified form b. Variable - is a concept whose value changes from case to case c. Objectivity - looking at society without prejudice or bias-2. Measurement: a. Reliability- is consistency in measurement which means for the measurement to be reliable it must yield the same results every time, it is repeated- b. Validity - is actually measuring what you intended to measure- - 3. Correlation and Cause – determines how variables are relateda. Correlation means a relationship in which two or more variables change together b. Cause means (cause and effect) a relationship where a change in one variable causes change in another 1. Independent variable- variable that causes the change2. Dependent variable – variable that changes c. Spurious correlation – an apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is caused by some other variable ( it is when two or more variables change but neither one causes the other-Four Methods of research a. The experiment- a method for investigating cause and effect, basically relationships through variablesb. Survey- method where subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or interviewc. Participant observation- a method in which investigators observe people while joining them in their routine activities ( 1960’s) d. Existing Data- method where is use already existing data collected by others to form new hypothesis and basis for new studiesSociology- the systematic study of human societySociological Perspective- sociology is the special point of view that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular peopleGlobal Perspective- the study of the larger world and our society’s place in itHigh- Income Countries- nations with the highest overall standards of livingMiddle- Income Countries- nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a wholeLow- Income Countries- nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor/ impoverishedComte's Three Stages of Society- theological stage, metaphysical stage, scientific stageTheological stage- the church in the Middle AgesMetaphysical Stage- the Enlightenment, ideas of Hobbes, Locke, and RousseauScientific Stage- modern physics, chemistry, sociologyPositivism- a scientific approach to knowledge based on “positive” facts as opposed to mere speculationTheory- a statement of how and why specific


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