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BU PSYC 111 - Research Methods Part 2, Nature Vs. Nurture Part 1

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PSYC 111 1st Edition Lecture 4Outline of Last Lecture I. BehaviorismII. Cognitive PsychologyIII. Professions in PsychologyIV.Research DesignOutline of Current Lecture II. Data Collection MethodsIII. StatisticsIV. Special Considerations for Psychology ExperimentsV. GeneticsCurrent LectureI. Data Collection MethodsOne form of a data collection method is the questionnaire. The questionnaire is the best way to get information from people. Questionnairescan induce representativesampling, which is when a large enough and random sample is questioned, it will represent the population as a whole. Aninterview is another form of questioning, where the questioner gets more information from a subject, but it takes more time to get the information. Naturalisticinformation is when the observer or experimenter watches and observes the subject and does not disturb in in it habits and actions. Tests are the fourth type of data collection method, and are done under research settings. II. StatisticsDescriptiveStatistics are the measures of central tendency. The mean is the average value of a group of numbers. The median is the middle value in a group of values. The mode is the number that appears most often in theThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.group of numbers. Descriptivestatistics also studies measures of variability. The range is the highest number in the group minus the lowest number. The variance is the average squared deviation from the mean. The standarddeviation is the square root of the variance.InferentialStatistics deals with sampling error. Inferential statistics is used to determine if differences between groups are due solely to sampling error or sampling error plus independent variable. Statisticalsignificance is a t-test used to compare 2 means and study the analysis of variance, as well as test correlation. Reliability and validity are also major parts of statistics. Validity is when the test or experiment measures what it was designed to measure. Convergentvalidity is when the experimenter measures their test against a measure that already exists. Reliability is when the test results of an experiment are consistent.III. Special Considerations for Psychology ExperimentsObserver bias is one special consideration for psychology experiments.In blind studies, the participants of the experiment don't know the hypothesis of the experiment. In double blind studies, participants and the experimenters don't know the hypothesis of the experiment. Lastly, the placebo is when the experimenter attempts to avoid a compound, so they create a a small lie to trick the participant into taking something that is harmless and has no effect on them, but can effect the experiment. The other consideration for psychology experiments is ethics. Informed consent is 100% necessary and is when the participant must be informed of all of the trials of the experiment beforehand, and must agree to participate in the experiment. Deception is when the participant is misconstrued in part of theexperiment to maintain the validity of the experiment. Anonymity is when the participant is kept anonymous to the experimenter so the experiment is in no way biased. Lastly, the debriefing is when the experimenter and the participant talk about the results of the experiment after it is concluded.Chapter 3: Nature Vs. NurtureI. GeneticsThe main terminology of genetics includes the nucleus, DNA, chromosomes, autosomes, and sex chromosomes (both X and Y). All of these components make up genes, which are the make-up of the people we all are. Genes can be homozygous or heterozygous, and either dominant or recessive. Dominant genes are the ones that are portrayed in the humanmake up. For example, the brown eyed trait is dominant in most people, so it would show up over the blue eyed trait. Genotypes are the genetic coding of each human being, and the phenotype is what traits are actually shown in the physical appearance. Sexual reproduction is how these genes are passed on to new people, and is adaptive because it increases variability. This process is important for psychology because it shows that some psychological traits are genetically encoded, and it was discovered that genes can effect


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