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BU PSYC 111 - History of Psychology Part 3, Research Methods Part 1

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PSYC 111 1st Edition Lecture 3Outline of Last Lecture I. EnlightenmentII. 19th CenturyIII. Advent of Modern PsychologyIV.PsychoanalysisOutline of Current Lecture II. BehaviorismIII. Cognitive PsychologyIV. Professions in PsychologyV. Research DesignCurrent LectureI. BehaviorismClassicalconditioning is one of the main principles of behaviorism, and is when the pairing of two things is passive. JamesWatson, a biologist from the 19th century, is considered to be the father of modern psychology. He believed that when you are born, you don’t have any behaviors and have to learn them all for yourself. He believed that we were granted no genetic endowments. EdwardThorndike was a psychologist who studied instrumentalconditioning, which was the process of teaching a subject that certain outcomes occur with desirable or bad behavior. This was also referred to as operant conditioning, and was also studied by B.F. Skinner.II. Cognitive PsychologyEdwardTolman is the psychologist who was the first to supply evidence for cognitive processes. Modern Cognitive Psychology was studied by Piaget,who studied cognitive development specifically. Chromsky created the language acquisition drone, and discovered there is a difference between theThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.mind and the brain. They also discovered that memory is an internal process. The development of the computer is a major thing that allowed for some of these conclusions to have been discovered. It was a huge information processor and allowed for the studying of cognitive neuroscience.III. Professions in Psychology There are many different professions in the field of psychology. What follows is a list of clinical roles one can have, and the degrees required for each profession:Psychiatrist (M.D.)Psychoanalyst (M.D., Ph.D., Psy.D.)Clinical Psychologist (Ph.D., Psy.D.)Counseling Psychologist (M.A., Ed.D., Psy.D.)School Psychologist (Ph.D., Psy.D.)Psychiatric Social Worker (M.SW.)Chapter 2- Research MethodsI. Research DesignDescriptivestudy is when one observes and records a specific subjects actions (observation without manipulation). This form of study is usually done in the field. Casestudies are when there is external validity but no control. Confounds can occur in these studies, which are what occurs when your experiment isn't properly controlled. When one properly controls their experiment, and eliminates confounds, the experiment has internal validity.Correlationalstudies determine relationships between variables. They can determine strength and direction of the relationship. This study does notimply causation, and has no ability to manipulate variables. Experiments arethe last type of study, and deal with hypothesis testing. The independentvariable is the variable the experiment manipulates, and the dependentvariable is the variable the experiment


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