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Psych 111 1st Edition Lecture 4Outline of Last Lecture I. Nature of ScienceII. Methods of Psychological Sciencea. Types of Studiesb. Components of StudiesOutline of Current Lecture 1/16/2015I. Evolution and Genetics DefineII. Evolutionary PsychologyIII. Behavior GeneticsCurrent LecturePsy 111Introduction to PsychologyEVOLUTION & GENETICSBeliefs in EvolutionWhat is evolution?Process by which traits become more or less common in a population across successivegenerations• Anatomical• Biochemical• BehavioralEvolutionaryPsychologyWhen did human evolution take place?200,000 - 700,000 years agoWhat is mechanism of evolution?Natural Selection• Variationdifferences among individuals within population• Inheritancetraits are passed from parents to offspring• Differential Reproductioncertain variants survive and reproduce at higher rates than others•What are consequences of evolution?AdaptationsEvolved solutions to problems• Survival Problems- PredatorsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Food scarcity• Mating Problems- Intrasexual- IntersexualExamples of Survival Adaptations• Phobias to Avoid PredatorsSnakes; Spiders; Heights;Open Spaces; Small Animals; Blood• Behaviors to Combat PredatorsFreeze; Flight; FightExamples of Survival Adaptations• Behaviors to Acquire FoodSearch; Recognize;Handle; Capture• Behaviors to Avoid Unsafe FoodDisgust; Gag;Spit; Vomit• Preferences to Attain Adequate NutritionSweets; Salt; FatExample of Mating AdaptationsGender Differences in Reproductive BiologyGender Differences in Mating BehaviorGender Differences in Reproductive BiologyFemales• Reproduction slow• Procreation big investment• Relatively few opportunities to reproduce• Partner helpful to rear childMales• Reproduction fast• Procreation not big investment• Virtually unlimited opportunities to reproduce• Partner needed to ‘spread seed’Predicted Gender Differences inMating BehaviorFemales• Discriminating• Quality oriented• Seeks mates with many resourcesFinances; Social Status; Age; Ambition; Size; Strength; Athleticism; Bravery• Seeks mates withhigh commitmentDependable; Stable; Kind; Positive interaction with childrenMales• Nondiscriminating• Quantity oriented• Promiscuous• Seeks mates able to bear childrenHealthy; Young; Attractive; Symmetric; FeminineObserved Sex Differences in Attitudes about SexObserved Sex Differences in Sexual BehaviorObserved Sex Differences in Sexual BehaviorObserved Sex Differences in Partner PreferencesObserved Sex Differences in Partner PreferencesObserved Sex Differences in Partner PreferencesEvolution & GeneticsWhat are nature and nurture?NatureGenetic effects on behavior and thoughtNurtureEnvironment (non genetic) effects on behavior and thought• prenatal environment• parenting• siblings• schools• peers• media• socio-economic statusWhat is nature - nurture debate?Nativist• “predetermined”• views humans as acquiring traits from genetic endowmentHow is genetic contribution evaluated?MZ vs. DZ TwinsTwins Reared Together vs. ApartAdoptive vs. Biological ParentsSimilarity of MZ vs. DZ in CognitionA. Genetically identicalB. Genetically as alike as any siblingsC. Always the same sexD. Never the same sexE. A and CGene-Environment Interaction“Heredity deals the cards; environment plays the hand.”Psychologist Charles L. BrewerTake Home Messages(Evolution & Genetics)• Many universals of humans nature can be explained as evolutionary adaptations to ourancestral environment• Both genes and environment contribute to individual differences in most


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