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U-M PSYCH 111 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 111 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7Psychology’s Early HistoryA New Science Is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall- Philosophy and physiology. - Wundt: made psychology an independent discipline rather than a step-child of philosophy or physiology. (founder of psych).Focus was on consciousness, awareness of immediate experience. Psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience. - Hall: rapid growth of psych in America, first journal. Establishment of APA.The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism Versus Functionalism- First 2major schools: structuralism and functionalism - Titchener: Structuralism: Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. Identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations,feelings, images. Depended on introspection: careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience.Trained subject to be more objective and aware. Exposed to stimuli and asked to analyze experience. - Functionalism: based on belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. James. Trained in medicine, Principles of Psychology.Psych embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences. Natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage aremore likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time. Typical characteristics serve a purpose. Study function rather than structure of consciousnessConsciousness: flow of thoughts. Analyze consciousness into its elements. Stream of Consciousness.How people acquired habits, laid groundwork for progress in study of learning and conception of the self. Theories of personality.How people adapt their behavior to the demands of real world. Sensation and PerceptionCattell and Dewey: mental testing, patterns of development in kids, effectiveness of educational practices, behavioral differences between sexes.Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture- Freud: approach to psych grew out of efforts to treat mental illness. Innovative procedure: psychoanalysis. - Existence of unconscious: contains thoughts, memories, desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior. - Psychological disturbances caused by personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level. - Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior. - Suggests people not masters of their own minds. Theory also proposed that behavior greatly influenced by sexual desires. - Influenced Jung and Adler.- Psychoanalysis gained credence in culture, influencing thought in medicine, arts, lit. Watson Alters Psychology’s Course: Behaviorism Makes Its Debut- Watson: Behaviorism: theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psych shouldstudy only observable behavior. Abandon study of consciousness. Focus on behaviors that could be directly observed. Scientific method depends on verifiability.Mental processes not proper subject for scientific study because private. Science of behavior.- Behavior: any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism. - Nature vs. Nurture. Genetics: nature.Environment and experience: nurture. - Pavlov: conditioned reflex, behaviorists eventually came to see psych mission as an attempt to relate overt behaviors (responses) to observable events (stimuli).- Stimulus-response psychology. - Animal research.- Watson went into advertising.Skinner Questions Free Will as Behavioralism Flourishes- Skinner: how envmt influences behavior. Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes. - Apply animal behavior to complex human behavior. - Beyond Freedom and dignity. All behavior is governed by external stimuli. Behavior determined in predictable ways by lawful principles, people controlled by their environment. Nofree will. The Humanist Revolt- Humanism: theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth. - Optimistic view of human nature. Because humans are fundamentally different from other animals, research on animals has little relevance to understanding human behavior. - Rogers and Maslow argued human behavior governed by each sense of self. Argued psychological disturbances are result of thwarting unique human needs. - Rogers: person-centered therapy. Psychology’s Modern HistoryPsychology Comes of Age as a Profession- Applied psychology, branch of psych concerned with everyday, practical problems. Remained on fringes of mainstream psychology until WW2.- Clinical psychology: branch concerned w/ diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. During WWII many psychologists were pressed into service as clinicians. Needed to screen military recruits suffering from trauma.Professionalization of psychology.Psychology Returns to Its Roots: Renewed Interest in Cognition and Physiology- 1950s/60s: Cognition: refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. Conscious experience, thinking.Jean Piaget: study of children’s cognitive development, Chomsky new interest in psychological underpinnings of language. - Internal mental effects determine behavior. Investigate decision making, reasoning, problem solving.- Psyche.- Interrelations among mind, body, behavior: Olds showed electrical stimulation of brain could evoke emotional responses. Sperry showed right and left halves of brain are specialized to handle different types of mental tasks. - Hubel and Wiesel: how visual signals are processed in brain. - Biological or neuroscience perspective: much of human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of brain structures and biochemical processes.Psychology Broadens Its Horizons: Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity- Vast majority of research in psych conducted in US by middle and upper class psychologists with upper middle class male participants. Might not apply to non-Western cultures.- Advances in communication, travel, and international trade have “shrunk” the world increased global


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