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Psych 111 1st Edition Lecture 7Outline of Last Lecture I. Overview of Sensation & PerceptionII. Sensory PrinciplesIII. Sensesa. Visionb. Hearingc. Smelld. Tastee. TouchOutline of Current Lecture I. Perceptual Processesa. Gestalt Principlesb. Cognitive Stylesc. Perceptual Setsd. Perceptual Constanciese. Depth and Distance Cluesf. IllusionsII. Inattentional BlindnessCurrent LecturePsy 111PERCEPTION• Perceptual Processes- Gestalt Principles- Cognitive Styles- Perceptual Sets- Perceptual Constancies- Depth and Distance Clues- Illusions• Inattentional BlindnessWhat are Gestalt Principles?• Innate rules that guide perception of patterns• Whole is different than sum of partsFigure GroundBackground seen as farther away than figureFigure Ground AmbiguityClosureIncomplete stimuli formed into finished unitsContour IllusionProximityThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Physically close objects grouped togetherContinuityContinuous lines perceived over changesSimilaritySimilar objects grouped togetherWe group individual letters into separate words by which principle ?What is cognitive style?• Field Dependencefocus on background• Field Independencefocus on central objectsCultural Differences in Cognitive StyleWhat are perceptual sets?Predispositions to interpret stimuli in particular waysContextExpectancyWhat are perceptual constancies?Perception of object seen as constant under changing conditions• Shape• Size• ColorHow are depth and distance perceived?• Monocular Cuessize of retinal image depends on distance• Binocular Cuesretinal images differ on each eyeHow is 2D perceived as 3D?Pictorial Cues• Linear Perspective• Texture Gradient• Interposition• Relative Size• Height in Plane• Shading and LightArt without Pictorial CuesArt with Pictorial CuesLinear PerspectiveNarrow parallel lines perceived further than wide onesTexture GradientDenser and less distinct texture perceived as furtherInterpositionOverlapped objects perceived furtherRelative SizeWhen expected to be same size,objects appearing larger perceived closerHeight in PlaneObjects low in field perceived closer; objects high in field perceived furtherShading and LightPatterns of light and shadows suggests depthWhat causes visual illusions?• Physiologyexcessive stimulation of brightness, color, size, position, tilt, and movement on eyes andbrain• Cognitionunconscious inferencesWhat is inattentional blindness?Failure to notice unexpected objects or eventsTake Home Messages(Perception)• Perception is process by which sensory images are internally represented, organized, andmeaningfully interpreted• Often what we think we see is not accurate• Sometime even when paying attention, much of what is in environment is not


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