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If you see a soccer ball coming and move to kick it, what is happening in your nervous system? (consider that your action involves the three interconnected functions of the nervous system)First you see it (Sensory input)Understanding what to do with the information (integration)Then you kick it (motor output)Neuron Structure (3 parts)Dendrites: Bring information into the cell body (input)Cell Body: Integration happens.Axon: Carries impulses away from the cell body (output)Controlling and coordinating the bodyWhat is a neuron and how do neurons communicate with one another?Neurons produce and transmit nerve impulses.Your body produces electricity. Your body also conducts electricity.Do electrical impulses jump the synaptic cleft?No. Electricity does not jump, there has to be a conductor.SynapsesChemical Neurotransmitters are released by one cells and received by another.The effect on the receiving neuron is to excite it (to continue transmitting the signal) but also it could inhibit it (stop the signal)Neurotransmitters in your lifeDopamine— lack of this causes Parkinson’s disease.Depression may be caused by low levels of serotonin or norepinephrine.SSRI’s they are serotonin reinhibitors.Caffeine reduces the effect of inhibitory neurotransmitters.Alcohol and legal and illegal drugs also act as/ impact neurotransmitters.A nerve signal involves a temporary reversal of the charge, caused by ions flowing into and out of the cell membrane.Ions moved by plasma membrane transport proteinsResting potentials are negative charges created when sodium (Na+) is moved outside and potassium (K+) inside the plasma membrane.Occur on inactive neuronsSignals are sent along neurons as moving waves of positive charge called action potentials.Action Potential— notice the type of elements needed for nerves to function properly.How many neurons are in your brain?100 Billion.How much energy do neuron action potentials use in a resting human?What is myelin? What does it do?What is the relationship between action potentials and epilepsy?How is epilepsy treated?WATCH ACTION POTENTIAL VIDEO ON POWERPOINTWhy are myelin Sheaths Important?Can you explain why multiple sclerosis is a disease of the nervous system that also involves the lymphatic system?A disease where your own body attacks you.Auto immune disease.Sensory PerceptionSensory organs absorb stimuli and turn them into action potentials that are processed by the brainSenses: touch, vision, smell, taste, hearing, balance and proprioception.Types of sensory receptorsReceptorStimulusExampleMechanoreceptorPhysical forceBalance, hearingThermoreceptorHeatTemperatureChemoreceptorDissolved chemicalsTaste, smellPhotoreceptorLightVisionNociceptorImmune chemicalsPainSensory adaptation occurs when receptors adjust to changing stimuliNociceptors are an exception— pain sensation continues as long as stimulus is present.VisionThe retina contains 2 type of photoreceptors that react to different light stimulirods: sensitive to low light intensity, provide night vision, black and white perception only.Cones: Sensitive to bright light, provide color vision, 3 types: red, blue, green.Taste is a chemical senseTaste buds detect dissolved chemicals4 basic taste sensations triggered by different chemicalsSweetSourSaltyBitterUmami (savory)Olfaction— two options for detection of airborne chemicals in the nasal epithelium:Nasolfaction— detection of volatile airborne chemicalsVomerolfaction— detection of non-volatile chemicalsOften used in chemical communication between members of a species.Hearing occurs when sound waves stimulate mechanoreceptors.Visible aspects of sensory structures indicate importance of different senses.Contrast the Nervous system with the endocrine systemNervous systemElectrical and chemical signalsRapid response, short duration of actionSignals stay in the systemOnly target cells are affectedEndocrine systemChemical signalSlower response, long duration of actionSignals sent through circulatory systemCells through the body may be affectedHormones— messengers of the Endocrine SystemSteroid Hormones influence the cell by getting into the nucleus and changing chemical productionPeptide Hormones (peptide means protein) influence the cell by binding to a receptor on the cell membrane.Endocrine system: important playersHypothalamusControl center of the endocrine systemPituitaryReceives signals from the hypothalamusParathyroid glandsHelp regulate blood calcium levelsThyroid glandRegulates oxygen consumption, metabolism, blood calcium levels, and body temperature.PancreasRegulates blood glucose levels through the secretion of hormones,Adrenal glandsRegulate metabolism and responses to stress. Fight or Flight system.Testes and ovariesGrowth and development, promote sexual characteristics, and regulate reproduction.The nervous and endocrine systems respond to feedback loopsWithout proper regulation by insulin, cells cannot obtain enough glucose.In a person with diabetes mellitus, either the body fails to produce enough insulin (as in type 1) or target cells do not respond normally to insulin (as in type 2).Uncontrolled diabetes can cause damage to multiple organs and result in premature death.BIO 101 1nd Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture II. Big themes in BiologyIII. Organization of Animal BodiesIV. Different Animal TissuesV. Animal BodiesVI. HomeostasisVII. Wet Cell SongVIII. Essential Nutrients.IX. Illnesses caused by infectionX. Big IdeasOutline of Current Lecture XI. NeurotransmittersXII. Action PotentialXIII. Sensory ReceptorsXIV.HormonesXV. Endocrine SystemCurrent Lecture If you see a soccer ball coming and move to kick it, what is happening in your nervous system? (consider that your action involves the three interconnected functions of the nervous system)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- First you see it (Sensory input)- Understanding what to do with the information (integration)- Then you kick it (motor output) Neuron Structure (3 parts)- Dendrites: Bring information into the cell body (input)- Cell Body: Integration happens. - Axon: Carries impulses away from the cell body (output) Controlling and coordinating the body- What is a neuron and how do neurons communicate with one another?o Neurons produce and transmit nerve impulses. o Your body produces electricity. Your body also conducts


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