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FSU SPC 1017 - Speech Final Review: Outline of Chapters

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Speech Final Review: Outline of ChaptersThe Persuasive Speech- Persuasion: the process of trying to get others to change their attitudes or behavior - Effective persuasion occurs when the focus is shared between the sender, receiver and the message - Change can occur when persuasion takes place - Persuasion is the process that occurs when a communicator (sender) influences the values, beliefs, attitudes or behaviors of another person (receiver) - Influence: the power of another person or thing to affect others – to produce effects without the presence of physical force o Implies a degree of control over thinking, emotions and actions of otherso Social influence: when a person’s values beliefs, attitudes or behaviors are changed because of the behavior or presence of a person, individuals, a group or groups or society- Motivation: the stimulation or inducement that causes you to act - Ethical Persuasion o Ethics: conforming to acceptable and fair standards of conducto If an audience doesn’t perceive you as ethical, your speech will failo Ethical principles: 1. Treat your audience with respect2. Take care not to distort or exaggerate your facts3. Avoid lying or name calling 4. Avoid suppressing information – refute opposing views5. Tell your audience if you have something to gain personally from the speech - Values, Beliefs, and Attitudeso Values: the ideas we have about what is good and what is bad and how things should be  Instrumental values: guide people’s day-to-day behavior- Loyalty, honesty, friendliness, courage, kindness, cleanliness, thrift, and responsibility Terminal values: final goals that are or are not worth attaining- Freedom, world peace, family security- Are not likely to change from a persuasive speecho Beliefs: statements of knowledge, opinion, and faith Our values usually determine our beliefs Beliefs are easier to change than values o Attitudes: predispositions to respond favorably or unfavorably toward a person, subject, or situation - Why persuasion is challenging?o You have to make your persuasive message stand out among all the otherso Persuasion tends to work slowly over time o It is unlikely for a single speech to change our strongest feelingso People are lazy and don’t want to change their routineo A threat to freedom – don’t like to be told what to do - Strategies of Persuasiono Determine your purpose – specific purpose To get audience members to believe a certain way To get audience members to act1. To change or reinforce beliefs 2. To take action3. To continue what they are already doing4. To avoid doing something5. To continue not doing something - Analyze Your Audience o Target audience: a subgroup of the whole audience that you must persuade in order to reach your goal o Why analyze your audience?1. To determine what to talk about2. To better meet their needs3. To assure that you are giving the right speech to the right audience4. To better customize your speech 5. To help organize your ideas6. To assist in eliminating ideas that do not belong7. To determine what is acceptable and what is not8. To determine how long to talk9. To help assure that you will do well 10. To relax you when giving your speech - Appeal to your audience using logico Aristotle thought effective persuasion consisted of 3 parts: Credibility (ethos) Emotional appeals (pathos) Logical appeals (logos)- One that addresses listeners’ reasoning ability o Deductive reasoning: general  specific o Inductive reasoning: specific  general o Casual reasoning: a logical appeal that pertainsto, constitutes, involves, or expresses a cause and therefore uses the word because, which is either implicitly or explicitly stated o Reasoning by analogy: compare 2 similar casesand conclude that if something is true for one, it must also be true for the other- Fallacy: a component of an argument that is flawed in its logic or form, and because of the flaw, it renders the argument invalid- Appeal to your audience using emotion:o “How to Persuade People Who Don’t Want to be Persuaded”1. they were personalized2. they evoked an emotional response3. they came from a trustworthy or respected sender4. they were conciseo emotional appeal: focuses on listeners’ needs, wants, desires, and wishes o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:  Physiological needs (bottom) – food, water, sleep, physical comfort Safety needs – stability, freedom from violence, freedom fromdisease, security, structure, order, law (families with young children) Belongingness and Love needs – friendship, giving, receivinglove, affection (younger audiences, college students)  Self-Esteem needs – recognition, respect from others, self-respect Self-Actualization needs (top) – genuine fulfillment, realization of potential (older adults)- Appeal to Your Audience Using Credibility o Credibility: believability Competence: special ability, skill or knowledge; have done your homework – personal experience, establishing commitment, research  Dynamism: shows a great deal of enthusiasm and energy for their subjects; can be created nonverbally  Character: a person with integrity who is honest, reliable, loyal and dependable Caring: the perception by listeners that speakers are concerned about their welfare; will respond more positively topeople who appear kind, warmhearted, attentive, considerate, sympathetic, understanding, and compassionate - Structure your Material Effectivelyo Questions of … Fact: you ask to answer whether or not something is true or false, answer yes or no  Value: concerned with the relative merit (goodness or badness) of a thing; choose between things, ideas, beliefs, or actions and explain why)  Policy: deal with specific courses of action, and usually contain words such as should, ought to, have to, or must- One-sided vs. two-sided argumentso A two-sided speech is more effective… when listeners have at least a high school education  If the evidence clearly supports the thesis  When listeners oppose the speaker’s position, but one-sided approach is more effective when listeners already support the thesis - Order of Presentation o Cause-effecto Problem-solutiono Monroe’s motivated sequence:1. Attention: the speaker calls attention to the topic or situation 2. Need: the speaker develops the need for a change and explains related audience needs; problem-development portion3. Satisfaction: the speaker


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