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FSU SPC 1017 - STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TEST 2

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Chapter 3: Verbal Communication• How one acquires the ability to use words depends on three factorso Native architecture FOXP2 gene enabled the emergence of behaviorally modern humans  FOXP2 gene makes clear that as a human, you have inborn language-transmission and language-acquisition devices—native architecture. Transforms the surface structure of language (message-feedback) into an internal deep structure (sender-receiver) that you readily understando Cognitive development Development of the thinking and organizing systems of your brain  Involves language, mental imagery, reasoning, problem solving, and memory development  Began before birth o Environmental influences Much of brain “wiring” resulted from environmental influences that took place as your parents and siblings had conversations with you, etc.  Language-acquisition support systemStrategic Flexibility• Sapir-Whorf hypothesiso Suggests that language you use to some extent determines or at least influences the way in which you view and think about the world around you.o Your thoughts are affected by or influenced by your languageHow Words Work• Semantic Triangleo Indicates direct relationship between symbols (words) and thoughtso Triangle with symbol at one peak, thought, at the second peak, and referent, at the third Thought—words we use as we think about the symbol  Referent—image we create as a result of the symbol o When you say a word you are vocally representing a physical object or abstract concept• Denotative meaning—definition• Connotative meaning—feelings or associations one has about a word (freedom, love)• Ladder of abstractiono Diagram of how we abstract through language, classifications, types, categories, etc.o Assists communicators in finding the right rung on the ladder with enough detail for clarity, yet not so much that the detail gets in the way of the communicationo This will help you better analyze your communications, understandings, and misunderstandingso This will help you immunize yourself against political propaganda, advertising and vacant rhetorico This will allow you to make a number of personal adjustments as you become more aware of your own abstractingLanguage • The language environment is made up for four elementso Peopleo Purposeo Rules of communication by which they achieve their purposeo Actual talk used in the situation• Ritual language—responses are expected of you; you learn them when you are very young, from parents or others• Inappropriate languageo Racial/ethnic epithets o Insults on others’ appearanceo Blasphemous wordso Aggressive words intended to control others • Euphemismo Inoffensive word or phrase that is substituted for other words that might be perceived as unpleasant. • Doublespeako Words deliberately constructed for political purposes—words intended to impose a desirable mental attitude on those using themo Relate to euphemism except for two things: 1) doublespeak doesn’t always have to do with unpleasant words and 2) doublespeak always relates to a political agenda• Racist languageo Tendency to describe the majority group, its actions and its members, in positive terms, whereas minorities are portrayed in a negative way• Sexist languageo Any language that is supposed to include all people, but, unintentionally excludes a gender• Ablest languageo Persons with disabilities Styles, Roles, Group Memberships• Style is the result of the way you select and arrange words and sentences• Women respond better to stories, anecdotes, and metaphors whereas men are more statistical and fact-oriented; they appreciate a colder, more scientific and mathematical approach and women= personal, human, and literary• Rapport-talk—women use this; language designed to lead to intimacy with others, to match experiences, and to establish relationships• Report-talk—speaker goal is to maintain status, demonstrate knowledge and skills, and keep center-stage position• Men more likely to look at problems in terms of “fixing them”• Men more likely to interrupt and give more directives when in conversation• Women use more pronouns, intensive adverbs, questions, and justifiersGender/Computer-Mediated Communication• Males are more likely to post longer messages, begin and close discussions in mixed-sex groups, assert opinions as “facts,” use crude language, use more aggressive and insulting speech• Females are a bunch of smiles and laughter, and have aligned and supportive conversational style; post short messages, qualify and justify their assertions, apologize, etc. • Powerful talko Talk that comes directly to the point; does not use hesitation or qualifications; people who engage in this are more attractive/persuasive; Language and Culture• Dialecto Habitual language of a communityo Distinguished by unique grammatical structures, words, and figures of speecho Community members who use it may be identified by region or by such diverse factors like education, social class, or cultural background• Paralanguageo Spoken language accompanied by thiso Vocal cues, or the way you say your wordso Meaning can be influenced by pitch and rate, volume, and how often you pauseWorking on Communication• Clarityo That aspect or characteristics of style by means of which a thought is so presented that it is immediately understood, depending on the precision and simplicity of the language.o Jargon is language that can be so specialized that is inappropriate to use outside the field where it originatedo Slang has its place when you are talking informally with your friends • Vividnesso Aspect of style by which a thought is so presented that it evokes lifelike imagery or suggestion• Metamessageo Aka subtexto The meaning apart from what actual words expresso We need to talk= I want to complainChapter 4: Nonverbal Communication• Nonverbal communication—information communicated without words. Much of it is unintentional.• Not part of the communication model/process• Conversation Managemento Using nonverbal cues to structure conversationsDifferences between Verbal and Nonverbal• Verbal follows specific rules of structure and grammar, words represent specific things, and it has culture and context bound meanings, conveyed linearly• Nonverbal- expressing feelings; brain creates a composite of all the signals given off by a new experience.Nonverbal on Internet• Emotions (smileys) used to


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