FSU SPC 1017 - Chapter 3- Verbal Communication

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Chapter 3- Verbal CommunicationCommunicating Effectively-How you acquired your ability to use words depended on 3 factors: native architecture, cognitive development, environmental influencesFOXP2 gene- makes clear that as a human, you have inborn language-transmission & language-acquisition devices (native architecture)Native architecture- transforms the surface structure of language ( appears in the model as message-feedback) into internal deep structure ( appears as sender-receiver)Cognitive development- the development of the thinking & organizing systems of your brain (involves: language, mental imagery, reasoning, problem solving, and memory development; starts before birth)You analyze language content before discovering & understanding grammatical structuresStrategic FlexibilitySaphir-Whorf hypothesis- suggests that the language you use to some extent determines or at least influences the way in which you view and think about the world around you (your thoughts are affected by or influenced by your language)It is a 2 way process- The kind of language you use is also influenced by the way you see the world.How Words WorkSemantic Triangle- a way to understand how words work; proposed by Charles Ogden & Ivor RichardsTo indicate the direct relationship between symbols( words) and thoughtsThe Semantic Triangle Explained:1) The matter (referent) evokes your thought (intended meaning)2) You encode your thought by choosing a word or words to represent it3)That word or words are conveyed (extended) to your listener4)Your listener decodes the word and arrives at his or her interpretation of the matter (referent)Denotative meaning- the dictionary definitionConnotative meaning- the feelings or associations each individual has about a wordMay cause problems in communication because a single word may evoke strong and varied feelings in listenersLadder of abstraction- A diagram of how we abstract through language, classifications, types, categories, and so on.Help you better analyze your communications, understandings, and misunderstandingsHelp you immunize yourself against political propaganda, advertising, and vacant rhetoricMake personal adjustments as your become more aware of your own abstractingGrammar of a language- Putting the words together to make the phrases and sentences that express relationships between the wordsPeople Determine MeaningsThe link between any word & the image we create in our minds = our thoughts, & every person’s thoughts about any words are likely to be different from everyone else’sEven when words are the same, the final images we create will be different from the images others create ( people factor)Language in Developing Online CredibilityEliminate all typos & sloppy or hurriedly constructed material because it damages credibility.Find a signature fontThe language environment- People, purposes & rulesAll language takes place within a particular environment; language in one environment may be appropriate in one, but not the otherThe language environment- is made up of four elements: people, their purpose, the rules of communication by which they achieve their purpose, & the actual talk used in the situationRitual language- takes place in environments where a conventionalized response is expected of you (greetings)“Hi, how are you?” “Good, how are you?”Different where there are different cultural valuesAppropriate languageInappropriate: racial or ethnic comments about group you do not belong to, insulting comments about appearance or behavior, blasphemous (religious words) or obscene (body-function words), aggressive words intended to control othersEuphemism- an inoffensive word or phrase that is substituted for other words that might be perceived as unpleasant (“passing away” “bathroom”)Doublespeak- refers to words deliberately constructed for political purposes; words specifically intended to impose a desirable mental attitude on those using themDouble speak & euphemism are identical except for-Double speak does not always have to with unpleasant words & it always relates to a political agendaExamples: downsizing- firing many employeesRacist, Sexist, and Ableist languageRacist Language- the tendency to describe the majority group, its actions and its members, in positive terms, whereas minority groups, their actions and members, are portrayed overwhelmingly in negative termsSexist language- considered to be any language that is supposed to include all people, but unintentionally (or not) excludes a genderCommon assumptions: All men are doctors, all nurses are women, all coaches are menAbleist language- referring to persons with disabilitiesSpecialization- words that are only used in certain environments; most professions and occupations have a language that only the practitioners understandStyle, Roles & Group MembershipsStyle- the result of the way you select and arrange words and sentencesEvery individual has their own verbal styleGender and LanguageRapport talk ( women)-Designed to lead to intimacy with others, to match experiences, and to establish relationshipsReport talk (men)-Maintain status, to demonstrate knowledge and skills, and to keep the center stage positionMen are more likely to interrupt and give directionsWomen use more personal pronouns and intensive adverbs, questions and justifiersCan be explained by “power differences”Powerful TalkPowerful Talk- comes directly to the point; does not use hesitation or qualificationsPeople who use powerful talk- found to be more credible, attractive, and persuasiveCharacterized by the nonexistence of certain communication behaviors; hedges & qualifiers ( “I guess” “kind of” “uh”), Tag questions (start out as statements but end in questions), disclaimers (words and expressions that excuse or ask listeners to bear with them)Culture & LanguageNumber of people speaker more than one language in US has increasedDifferent words have different meanings in other culturesApprox. 7,000 languages; 1 vanishes every 14 daysKnowing different languages allows for perspective gainsDialect- habitual language of a community; distinguished by unique grammatical structures, wods and figures of speechGrowing stronger; especially in urban areasSpeaking and WritingParalanguage- vocal cues, or the way you say your words (accompanied by spoken language)Includes: pitch and rate, volume, and how often you pauseWriters: do not have paralanguage, words must be chosen carefullyWorking on your


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FSU SPC 1017 - Chapter 3- Verbal Communication

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