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Module 4Module 5Module 6Clinical CorrelatesUnit 2 Study GuideDetails matter a LOT in anatomy. You can’t make up things or “wing it “in anatomy. Also, this is just aguide not an exhaustive list. You may need to connect the dots between bones and muscles. Use a whiteboard and dry erase markers to write out things OVER and OVER and OVER. Werecommend making your own flashcards for the muscles. The act of writing the flashcards will help youlearn the material better than using someone else’s materials. If you are in lab, the structures to know lists can be used for the lecture as well. Just focus more on thefunctions of those structures.Module 4- What are the functions of the skeletal system?Support, Protection, Movement, Hemopoiesis, Energy & Mineral Reserves- What are the bones of the appendicular skeleton? Axial skeleton?Appendicular: pectoral girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle, lower limbsAxial: skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic cage (sternum and ribs)- What are the three types of cartilage? Where can you find them?Hyaline: ends of long bones, costal cartilage, respiratory structures, fetal skeletonElastic: pinna (outer ear), epiglottis Fibrocartilage: intervertebral disks, knee joint, pubic symphysis- What is spongy bone? What is compact bone? Spongy Bone (trabecular bone): inside bones, better at shock absorptionCompact Bone (cortical bone): smooth, dense, external portion of bones, strong, rigid- What are osteoclasts, osteocytes, and osteoblasts?Osteoclast: break down (consume) boneOsteocyte: mature bone cellsOsteoblasts: build new bone- Be able to give examples of long bones, short bones, irregular bones, and flat bones. Long Bone: humerusShort Bone: talusIrregular Bone: vertebraFlat Bone: sternum- Be able to identify the parts of a long bone.- What is endochondral ossification? What is intramembranous ossification? Whichbones form via endochondral ossification? Intramembranous ossification? Endochondral Ossification: skeleton begins as hyaline cartilage model, bone replaces cartilage, epiphyseal (growth) plates ossify eventually, most of the bones of the skeleton form this wayIntramembranous Ossification: bone grows within a membrane, forms many flat bones (bones of the skull) as well as maxillae, zygomatic, mandible, and center of the clavicle- What is the epiphyseal plate? Be able to identify itEpiphyseal Plate: growth plate- What is the pectoral girdle?Pectoral Girdle: includes left and right scapula and left and right clavicle- What are the major parts/processes of the scapula?Scapular spine, glenoid cavity, supraspinous and infraspinous fossae, subscapular fossa, coracoid process, and acromion - What bones are found in the upper limb?Arm, forearm, hand: carpal bones, metacarpals, phalanges - What are the major parts of the humerus? Head of the humerus, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, anatomical neck, deltoid tuberosity- How many phalanges are in the hand? How many carpals? Phalanges: 14Carpals: 8- What bones are in the pelvis? Where do they articulate? Pelvic girdle, ossa coxae (hip bone), sacrum, coccyxArticulate at the sacroiliac joint - What are the major features of the femur? What bones are articulate with the femur?Head, neck, greater and lesser trochanters, lateral and medial condyles, and lateral and medial epicondylesArticulates with patella and tibia- What features help you distinguish the tibia from the fibula?Tibia: larger and sturdier, located mediallyFibula: thinner, located laterally, doesn’t articulate with the femur at the knee and is only for stabilization at the ankle- How many tarsals and phalanges are in the foot?Tarsals: 7Phalanges: 14- What are the three types of joints? What are examples of each?Fibrous: skull suturesCartilaginous: costochondral joints, epiphyseal plates, intervertebral joints, pubic symphysisSynovial: most joints- What is synchondrosis? Symphysis?Synchondrosis: bones joined by hyaline cartilageSymphysis: fibrocartilage between articulating bones- What movements happen with plane joints, hinge joints, pivot joints, condylar joints, and ball and socket joints? What are examples of these joints/ Plane Joint: articulating bones glide past each other, carpal and tarsal bonesHinge Joint: flexion/extension, elbow joints, interphalangeal joints, knee jointsPivot Joint: rotation, proximal radioulnar joints, atlantoaxial jointCondylar Joint: one bone has a convex surface, one has a concave surface, metacarpophalangeal jointsBall and Sock Joint: flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, and rotation, shoulder joints, hip joints- Know these movements:o Flexion/extensiono Pronation/supinationo Eversion/inversiono Abduction/adductiono Lateral rotation/medial rotationo Dorsiflexion/plantarflexiono Circumductiono Oppositiono Protraction/Retractiono Elevation/Depression- What bones make up the knee? What ligaments? Patella, femur, tibiaPosterior cruciate ligament, anterior cruciate ligament, patellar ligament, lateral collateral ligament, medial collateral ligament, meniscus - What bones make up the temporomandibular joint?Mandible, temporal bone of the cranium- What bones and ligaments are found in the elbow?Bones: humerus, ulna, radiusLigaments: Radial collateral ligament, annular ligament - What bones make up the hip (coxal) joint?Femur and os coxae- What is the glenohumeral joint? What bones?Shoulder jointScapula and humerusModule 5- What are the three types of muscle tissue? How can you tell them apart?Skeletal: striated, voluntaryCardiac: striated, Y-shape involuntary, has intercalated discsSmooth: NOT striated, involuntary- What are the properties of skeletal muscle? ContractibilityExcitabilityExtensibilityElasticityConductivity- What is the function of skeletal muscle?Produce movementMaintain postureSupportGenerate heatStorage & movement of materials- What are the three layers of connective tissue found in muscle? What do they surround, i.e., fascicles, muscles?Epimysium: surrounds entire “muscle”, separates individual musclesPerimysium: surrounds each fascicle, divides skeletal muscle into compartmentsEndomysium: surrounds the muscle fibers within a fascicle- What is a sarcomere?Sarcomere: basic functional unit of a skeletal muscle – contraction of the sarcomere is what contracts the muscle, each sarcomere shortens as muscle contracts- What are examples of circular, convergent, parallel, and pennate muscles?Circular: orbicularis oculi, orbicularis orisConvergent: pectoralis major, latissimus

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Mizzou PTH_AS 2201 - Unit 2 Study Guide

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