UMass Amherst KIN 470 - Lab 4 Handout_adjusted_ (7 pages)

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Lab 4 Handout_adjusted_



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Lab 4 Handout_adjusted_

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Pages:
7
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Kin 470 - Exercise Physiology

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LABORATORY 4 BLOOD PRESSURE AND ACUTE RESPONSE IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 Blood Pressure BP Pulse Pressure PP Mean arterial pressure MAP Cardiac cycle Hypertension Hypotension Cold Pressor Test INTRODUCTION Blood Pressure is the force exerted on the walls of blood vessels by the blood The force is the result of the contraction and relaxation of the heart Blood pressure is expressed in millimeters of mercury mmHg Typical measurements for males and females are 120 80 and 110 70 respectively The higher number refers to systolic blood pressure SBP which is produced as blood is ejected from the left ventricle during systole The lower number indicates diastolic blood pressure DBP this represents the pressure being exerted on the blood vessels during the relaxation phase diastole of the cardiac cycle In this lab blood pressure will be evaluated at rest and during exercise using a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer Pulse pressure PP and mean arterial pressure MAP will be determined for one subject during rest lying supine exercise and exercise with the cold pressor test Blood pressure may be defined for laboratory purposes as the force of blood distending the arterial walls Blood pressure is primarily dependent upon the volume of blood and the resistance of the blood vessels Blood exerts pressure throughout the vascular system but is greatest within the arteries where it is generally measured and used as an indication of cardiovascular function Blood pressure is typically measured in the brachial artery at the antecubital fossa anterior crease of the elbow In this lab we will measure blood pressure response to perturbations in body position and physical work PHYSIOLOGICAL RATIONALE Blood pressure measurement is a common component of a physical clinical examination It is recommended that persons of all ages should periodically check their blood pressure Elevated blood pressure hypertension 140 90 mmHg and greater has been associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease stroke and kidney failure High blood pressure results in a greater workload for the heart which can lead to physiological changes such as artery damage and narrowing aneurysms and enlarged left ventricles High blood pressure may not be noticed outwardly because there are no obvious symptoms until a fatal or near fatal heart attack or stroke occurs Therefore the primary clinical purpose of measuring blood pressure is to determine the potential risk of cardiovascular disease Medications that function to decrease blood volume vasoconstriction and cardiac contractility are typically prescribed to reduce blood pressure While lifestyle and medications have chronic effects of blood pressure by their effects on heart function and the peripheral vasculature blood pressure is also subject to acute influences In this lab we will examine the acute effects of exercise and body position on blood pressure This is done to demonstrate the influence of changing oxygen demands and gravity



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