UMass Amherst KIN 470 - 1:28:14 kin 470 class notes (6 pages)

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1:28:14 kin 470 class notes



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1:28:14 kin 470 class notes

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Pages:
6
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Kin 470 - Exercise Physiology
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1 28 14 kin 270 class notes Energy and reactions o Finished off with this o Energy liberating exergonic o Energy consuming Take energy to happen endergonic The breakdown of glucose o Exergonic reaction o Take glucose molecule breaking that down o Lots of steps o Extract energy o Little bit left in glucose molecule o Metabolized the whole thing to carbon dioxide and water Coupled reaction o Exergonic reaction going from reactions to products o Coupled to adjacent gear o Product from reactants Exergonic reactions o Occur spontaneously o Put ATP into water left on desktop break down into ADP and phosphate o Occurs spontaneously Oxidation reduction electron transfer a coupled reaction o Transfer of an electron o Release of energy o Gain of energy o Oxidation offer Loss of electrons Molecule donates electrons to another molecule Not free e often with H Oxygen not required unlike the name implies Oxygen is a really strong acceptor of electrons o Reduction receive Gain of electrons Molecule accepts electrons typically with a H Oxidation and reduction reactions are couples o Compound A has 2 electrons with it Reducing agent o Meets with oxidized compound B o Electrons transfer from A to B o In process A is oxidized losing electrons o B is reduced gaining electrons o Terms can be confusing o At the end of the reaction oxidized compound o Opposite true of B o Gained electrons reduced compound A Key Electron Carrier o Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide vit B3 o Lot of reactions this serves as electron carrier Reduced compound NAD serves as oxidizing agent Compound becomes oxidized NAD becomes reduced o NAD H is a shuttle to next compound Y Y gains electrons and protons NAD becomes reduced again o Recycling o Can do process all over again Enzymes o Catalysts that regulate the speed of reactions o Reactions would happen very slowly without them o Muscle contraction can happen in ms o Lower the activation energy required o Factors the regulate enzyme activity Temperature Optimum temp Above or below and it will slow down pH optimum range most of ours are around neutral 7 o interact with specific substrates o increase metabolism by changing temperature cold water o Learning structure of enzymes is important Windows into disease Some things that drive cell growth are small enzymes Drug companies Find drugs to inhibit enzymes based on shape Stop tumors metastasis etc o Enzymes are so specific for substrates Enzymes lower the energy of activation o Free energy on y axis o Course of reaction on x axis o ATP in jar of water sit on desk Hydralyzes Amount of energy required would be very high take a long time o Start with ATP Pi get a certain amount of energy out of those doesn t matter if enzyme is there or not Simplest enzymatic reaction o Many dif reactions enzymes will catalyze o Stick with ATP analogy o Compounds bind o Substrate with specific shape reciprocal image to match that o Magic happens o Enzymes allows products to be generated o Enzyme changes shape lower affinity for substrate releases them More complex reaction o A B bind to enzyme o Somehow it breaks down synthesizes new products creates C D Nomenclature of enzymes o ase suffix o Oxidoreductases Redox reactions e g LDH o Transferases Transfer elements P e g PFK o ATPases Hydrolyze ATP e g myosin Bioenergetics o Process of providing energy for all cell functions including movements o Conversion of food fats proteins CHO into energy o Energy is converted in usable forms ATP Electrical mechanical chemical potential o Myosin particularly neat Uses chemical changes it into mechanical work movement Most of that energy is lost as heat Fuels for human movements o CHO s 4 kcals gram glucose stored as glycogen in muscle and liver available in blood o Fats fatty acids stored as triglycerides in muscle and fat cells 9 kcals g subcutaneous visible to us abdominal legs triceps etc o Proteins Not a primary energy source during exercise but can be used if needed 4 kcal gram Largely don t use them during exercise Progressing toward starvation or at the end of a long exercise session ex a 4 hour run after hour 3 will use protein most likely Protein can go to krebs cycle and be used for energy Not an efficient way of doing things Don t really want to use it ATP cellular energy currency o Adenine tri phosphate ribose o 3 phosphates are important breaking of bonds is what gives us energy o measure change in ATP at UMass muscle fatigue study put leg in magnetic resonance device ATP content of muscles Spectrum Points concentration of ATP corresponds to phosphate groups Hydrolyze ATP o Triphosphate diphosphate o Then hydrolysis reaction release inorganic phosphate molecule In doing so release tension in molecule release energy Decent enzyme harness the energy Muscles means to cause movement generate force ATP coupled reactions o Many processes use ATP o Intermediate between things o Energy producing reactions Go through when we talk about glycolysis KREBs ETC o Foods coupled to formation of ATP o ATP is formed floats around cell harnesses energy in cell o Pump calcium around cell o Build proteins o Replicate DNA o Harness energy of ATP o Energy for a lot of dif reactions Three pathways to generate ATP o ATP Water atpases ADP Pi o 1st way creatine kinase reaction start exercising breaking down ATP that will find way to phosphocreatine PCr Cr give to ADP ADP ATP Reaction tapped into almost immediately Low store in the muscles ATP CP only lasts for 5 seconds 10 seconds Sprints quick activities nd o 2 way glycolysis use of glucose oxidative or nonoxidative rd o 3 way oxidative phosphorylation much more complex way of making ATP more efficient more ATP out of this reaction o Keep in mind Creatine kinase glycolysis in cytosol Oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria CK reaction basis of Cr supplementation o Premise increase pool of phospho creatine will allow high intensity workout for longer periods of time o No definite answer lots of controversy disagreement Bioenergetics formation of ATP o Anaerobic pathways without O2 Creatine kinase reaction PCr Glycolysis glucose Occur in cytosol o Aerobic pathways Oxidative phosphorylation requires O2 Occurs in mitochondria o Go through in more detail when we go through these o Mitochondria Double membrane Outer leaky Inner more selective Lots of ridges in it Advantage stack through synthesizing enzymes One mitochondria Anaerobic ATP Production o ATP PCr system Immediate source of ATP Downside 1 PCr 1 ATP o PCr ADP


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