UMass Amherst KIN 470 - Lab 5 Handout_adjusted (4 pages)

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Lab 5 Handout_adjusted



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Lab 5 Handout_adjusted

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Pages:
4
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Kin 470 - Exercise Physiology
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LABORATORY 5 Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities IMPORTANT TERMS 1 Ventilation 2 Diffusion 3 Conducting zone 4 Respiratory zone 5 Spirometry IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1 Spirometry 2 Lung Volumes 3 Lung Capacities 4 FEV1 INTRODUCTION The respiratory system is comprised of the larynx trachea bronchi and the lungs In essence it is a series of tubes that progressively get smaller and smaller as we move from the nasal and oral cavities down into the lungs The primary role of the respiratory system is to allow for a transfer of gases specifically oxygen O2 and carbon dioxide CO2 between the internal and external environments This gas exchange occurs in response to two phenomena ventilation the movement of air into and out of the lungs and diffusion the exchange of gases from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration The respiratory system is divided into the conducting zone and the respiratory zone The conducting zone is responsible for bulk movement of air and is associated with ventilation It also functions to filter warm and humidify the incoming or inhaled air The conducting zone is comprised of the following structures Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles The respiratory zone is associated with gas diffusion The function of the respiratory zone is to exchange gas that is to remove CO2 from the blood and deposit O2 into the blood The structures associated with the respiratory zone include Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs There are approximately 300 million alveoli in the human lung providing an estimated 60 80 square meters of surface area available for diffusion Capillary beds surround the alveoli for quick transfer of gas into the blood stream Lung function is assessed using a technique known as spirometry Inspired and expired gas volumes are measured while a participant breathes through a specialized device Spirometry 1 is used in clinical settings to diagnose patients with asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD emphysema and chronic dyspnea among other diseased states Lung volumes which are separate from lung capacities are measured via spirometry and include tidal volume inspiratory reserve volume expiratory reserve volume and residual volume The total volume of air inhaled or exhaled during a resting breath represents tidal volume TV The volume of air measured during a maximal inhalation above normal breathing is the inspiratory reserve volume IRV The volume of air forcefully exhaled past normal breathing is the expiratory reserve volume ERV Following a maximal exhalation there is still air present in the lungs This volume is denoted as the residual volume RV Lung capacities are calculations based on two or more lung volumes and are used as indicators of lung function An individual s vital capacity VC is the amount of air that is forcibly exhaled after a maximal inhalation The inspiratory capacity IC is the maximal amount of inhaled air following a normal exhalation The volume of air present in the lungs following a normal exhalation is the functional residual capacity FRC And the total lung capacity TLC is the maximal amount of air present in the lungs after a maximal inhalation Lung volumes and capacities are generally displayed in a spirogram Figure 10 9 in your textbook Together measures of lung volumes and capacities are used to diagnose individuals with pulmonary diseases and disorders Another common method to diagnose pulmonary diseases or disorders is testing an individual s FEV1 FEV1 stands for forced expiratory volume in 1 second In common terms it is the amount of air an individual can forcefully exhale in 1 second after a full inhale Healthy individuals tend to have an FEV1 around 80 which means they are able to expire 80 of their vital capacity in 1 second Those that have a disorder or disease such as COPD may only have an FEV1 of 40 EXPERIMENTAL PROBLEM In this lab you will investigate lung volumes and capacities of two individuals during rest and 3 bouts of exercise on a cycle ergometer You will measure and calculate all of the major volumes and capacities TV IRV ERV RV VC IC FRC and TLC In addition during the rest measurements you will calculate the FEV1 This lab will utilize the BioPac system L13 Pulmonary Function II PROCEDURE 1 Open BioPac L13 Pulmonary Function II 2 Hold the transducer in an upright position Do not breathe into the transducer during calibration Click Calibrate The screen will cycle through TWICE total of 8 seconds 3 Connect the calibration syringe to the transducer via the bacteriological filter 4 Let the transducer hang off the edge of the table and hold the calibration syringe with the handle fully extended Click OK and begin pumping the syringe through 5 cycles in and out is one cycle Click End Calibration when complete Make sure there are 5 complete cycles displayed on the screen Redo calibration as needed click Redo Calibration 5 Remove syringe and attach personal disposable filter to transducer Have the participant sit down and breathe normally for 3 minutes They should then put on a nose piece and breathe through the transducer Wait 20 seconds 6 Click Record FEV at the end of exhalation Count out loud 5 breathing cycles in and out is one cycle At the end of the 5th cycle direct participant to INHALE AS DEEPLY AS POSSIBLE HOLD FOR 1 SECOND AND EXHALE AS QUICKLY AND AS DEEPLY AS POSSIBLE THIS EXHALE SHOULD LAST 3 6 SECONDS AND BE UNCOMFORTABLE After continue breathing normally for 5 complete cycles 7 Click Stop after last exhalation 8 Analyze the data recording the 4 volumes of interest 9 If this was your rest condition also measure the FEV1 To do this highlight the max inhale to the max inhale and click Calculate FEV Change the last red box from None to Delta T Click on the graph where the slope starts to increase and drag it until Delta T 1 00 The Delta value is your FEV1 10 Click Redo twice to do another recording DO NOT HIT DONE 11 Have the participant sit on the cycle ergometer and adjust seat height They will be exercising at 60 rpm against 1 kg resistance for 3 minutes During last 30 seconds have the participant repeat the breathing protocol 5 breaths deep inhale deep exhale 5 breaths while biking 12 Repeat the cycling procedure two more times at a resistance set to 2kg and 3kg 13 Repeat the resting and exercise procedure for a second participant WHAT TO TURN IN You will turn in a short form lab report that includes a table with all the volumes and capacities calculated for


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