UMass Amherst KIN 470 - Lab 5 Handout_adjusted (4 pages)

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Lab 5 Handout_adjusted



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Lab 5 Handout_adjusted

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Pages:
4
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Kin 470 - Exercise Physiology

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LABORATORY 5 Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities IMPORTANT TERMS 1 Ventilation 2 Diffusion 3 Conducting zone 4 Respiratory zone 5 Spirometry IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1 Spirometry 2 Lung Volumes 3 Lung Capacities 4 FEV1 INTRODUCTION The respiratory system is comprised of the larynx trachea bronchi and the lungs In essence it is a series of tubes that progressively get smaller and smaller as we move from the nasal and oral cavities down into the lungs The primary role of the respiratory system is to allow for a transfer of gases specifically oxygen O2 and carbon dioxide CO2 between the internal and external environments This gas exchange occurs in response to two phenomena ventilation the movement of air into and out of the lungs and diffusion the exchange of gases from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration The respiratory system is divided into the conducting zone and the respiratory zone The conducting zone is responsible for bulk movement of air and is associated with ventilation It also functions to filter warm and humidify the incoming or inhaled air The conducting zone is comprised of the following structures Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles The respiratory zone is associated with gas diffusion The function of the respiratory zone is to exchange gas that is to remove CO2 from the blood and deposit O2 into the blood The structures associated with the respiratory zone include Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs There are approximately 300 million alveoli in the human lung providing an estimated 60 80 square meters of surface area available for diffusion Capillary beds surround the alveoli for quick transfer of gas into the blood stream Lung function is assessed using a technique known as spirometry Inspired and expired gas volumes are measured while a participant breathes through a specialized device Spirometry 1 is used in clinical settings to diagnose patients with asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD



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