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UI CSD 3117 - Language and Memory

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Fundamental properties of languageLanguage is a system of arbitrary relationsrelationship between phonological form of a word and its meaning is largely arbitraryLanguage processing is incrementalspoken language unfolds over time (~150 -200 word /minute) making many words and phrases ambiguousLanguage use is flexible and creativespeakers rhetorically or poetically select particular details to represent for a specific listener on a particular occasionLanguage use is multi-modalmultiple, rich sources of info from visual world, gaze, gesture are integrated with language.Why memory?Memory is the most basic and important operation of the brainIts instantiation in the brain supports all learningMemory complaints are common and amontg most handicapping of cognitive deficitsOther cognitive processes such as language, planning, and problem-solving rely on memory for effective operationLong standing attempts to link memory to languageWorking memory and/or executive control processesPrefrontal cortex and/or perisylvian areasMeets demands of incremental language processingSemantic memory systemdistributed corticalnetworkssupports access to diverselexical and real-world knowledgedeclarative/procedural hypothesisdeclarative memory (MTL/hippocampus) support lexicon via arbitrary binding; procedural memory (basalganglia) supports grammar via statistical rule based learning)What is memory?Memory refers to knowledge that is stored in the brain and to the processes associated with acquiring, encoding, storing, and retrieving this informationMultiple Memory SystemsMemory is manifested in multiple ways by multiple functionally and anatomically distinct memory systemsWorking memoryLong term memoryShort term or working memoryThe capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of timeST/WM links to languageLanguage processing is incremental-language processing and useHolding information on line for comprehensionLarger capacity associated with increased ability to comprehend more complex sentences (E.g., The hippo that the lion kissed on the nose was running into the jungle)Word learning-language learningAbility to hold novel speech material in pSTM presumably permits children to establish stable, long-term phonological representations of new words in long-term memoryChildren with larger working memory capacity have larger vocabulariesMorphological and syntactic learning and functioning- Language LearningInitial learning of whole phrases and only later discover underlying rules, categories, and structuresChildren with high pSTM capacity children produced longer utterances containing a greater range of syntactic structures and lexical diversityST/WM links to languageIndividuals and special populations with low or disordered ST/WM have lower language abilitysIndividuals differences among healthy participantsSpecific language impairmentADHDAphasiaCapacitySpan tasksNumber and letter strings93208923092Reading/mathMary went to the store after reading a long letter from her grandfatherDoes 2+6/3=5?What was the last word in the previous sentence you heard?N-backDeclarative MemoryDeclarative memory system supports rapid acquisition of knowledge that can be consciously expressed, flexibly retrieved and used in novel contextsSemantic vs. Episodic Memory (Tulving, 1972)Hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structuresRelational Memory Theory1. Declarative memory is a fundamentally relational system2. Hippocampus contributes the critical processes of relational memory binding and activation3. It mediates representation of the relations among perceptually distinct items4. It represents and retrieves all manner of relations among the elements of experiences, events, or scenes5. Produces a particular class of representations which are flexible, relational, and accessible to various brain processors6. Can be retrieved flexibly& used in novel contextsLong standing attempts to link memory to languageWorking memory and/or executive control processesPrefrontal cortex and/or perisylvian areasMeets demands of incremental language processingSemantic memory systemdistributed cortical networkssupports access to diverse lexical and real-world knowledgedeclarative/procedural hypothesisdeclarative memory (MTL/hippocampus) support lexicon via arbitrary binding; procedural memory (basal ganglia) supports grammar via statistical rule based learning)Hippocampus, Declarative Memory, and Word LearningDeclarative memory (MTL/hippocampus) support lexicon via arbitrary bindingHippocampus bind together the arbitrarily related elements of that make up word learning (ie. Phonological word from and conceptual meaning)Hippocampus links information across words (and time) to make up the semantic networkPatient groups with impaired declarative memory have profound deficits in word learningAmnesia, dementia, new links to SLIHippocampus is necessary for the binding of arbitrary relations (relational memory binding) and for mediating their flexible expression; and can do so on-line or in the moment (ie. Time scale of STM or WM)CSD 3117 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Language and Cognition interfaceII. Jean Piageta. The Cognitive HypothesisIII. Cognitive Influences in development vs adulthoodIV. The Social basis of languageV. Relationship between language and thoughta. Vygotskyb. Sapir-WhorfOutline of Current Lecture VI. Fundamental properties of memoryVII. What is memory?a. Multiple Memory Systemsb. Links to languageVIII. HippocampusCurrent Lecture: Language and Memory Fundamental properties of language- Language is a system of arbitrary relationso relationship between phonological form of a word and its meaning is largely arbitrary- Language processing is incrementalo spoken language unfolds over time (~150 -200 word /minute) making many words and phrases ambiguousThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Language use is flexible and creativeo speakers rhetorically or poetically select particular details to represent for a specific listener on a particular occasion- Language use is multi-modalo multiple, rich sources of info from visual world, gaze, gesture are integrated with language. Why memory?- Memory is the most basic and important operation of the braino Its instantiation in the brain supports all learningo Memory


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