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UI CSD 3117 - Language and Cognition

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Language-cognition interfaceAre language processes specific to language or are they aspects of general cognitive processing?What are the biological bases of language?Is language special or separate?Does cognition influence language? Does language influence cognitionThe cognitive hypothesisJean PiagetDevelopment follows a sequence of defined stagesTo reach one stage, child must go through proceeding stagesNothing special about language, rather it is a social and cognitive processing like any otherThe Cognitive HypothesisSensorimotor Stage (Birth-2 years old)First stage of child’s mental development which mainly involves sensation and motor skills such as hear, sight, feel, taste, move, manipulate, bite, chew and so onPreoperational Stage (2-7 Years old)In this stage children use their mental ability to represent events and objects in various ways like using symbols, gestures, and even communication, and so on thus their logical reasoning are not yet organized or developedConcrete-operational Stage (7-11 Years old)At this stage the child becomes more stable, think operationally and use logical reasoning rather than intuitive thoughtFormal-Operational Stage (11 Years+ old)Where children become more systematic and reasonable and they can not only reason of tangible objects and events but also they possess capability of reasoning and thinking in more abstract hypothetical and idealistic onesThe cognitive hypothesisAccording to Piaget, language needs certain cognitive precursors in order to developIe) need object permanence to be able to acquire names for objectsStrong hypothesis regarding the extent to which cognition and language are linked with language being dependent on cognitionTests of the cognitive hypothesis:Test language abilities of children with learning difficultiesDown’s syndrome—over time, language lags behind mental ageWilliams syndrome—language exceeds cognitive abilitiesAutism—cognitive abilities vary considerably; social communication difficult, grammar intactThe Cognitive HypothesisEvaluation of cognitive hypothesisCognitive development drives linguistic developmentMixed evidence particularly for the strongest version of the hypothesisWhat is cognition? What are the communicativeIntelligence precursors to language?Memory (working memory: -the social basis of languageholding on to memoriesbriefly)Theory of mind: our knowledgeor understanding of the feelings,mental states of others; andthe recognition that my mentalstate is different from othersCognitive influences in development vs adulthoodIn development, language acquisition is linked to various aspects of cognitionMemoryTheory of mindAttentionIn adulthood, language use and processing is linked to underlying cognitive processesDeficits in comunciation result from impairments to cognitive processes underlying language and may include1. Impaired attention, perception and memoryinflexibility, impulsiThe social basis of languageLinguistic deprivation vs social deprivationNot enough to be exposed to language, must be involved in social interactionStrongest version of the social interaction view is that biological and cognitive processes may be necessary but they are not sufficient for language developmentWhat happens during social interactionMutual gaze—looking at the same objectJoint attention—looking at/talking about the same thingEye contact—looking at each other face and eyesTurn taking—early roots in feeding; yawns and burps treating as utterancesEvidenceHard to disagree with the spirit of this idea!But, can we disentangle social interaction with the cognitive processes that support itWhat do disorders in the social use of language tell us about this proposal?What is the relationship between language and thought?Does the form of our language influence the way in which we think , or is the form of our language dependent on general cognitive factors?4 main approachesCognition determines the course of language development (Piaget)Language and cognition are independent (Chomsky)Language and cognition originate independently but come interdependent (Vygotsky)Language determines the course of cognition (Sapir- Whorf)Vygotsky—interdependence viewLanguage and thought independent until around age 3Then, language and thought become interdependent and that later cognitive development is determine by languageVygotsky—Interdependence viewPros- one of the few socialists that brought this up earlyCons- its hard to tease apart variable (isolate variables)Influence—child development, education, neurogenic communicationSapir-Whorf hypothesisThe form of our language determines the structure of our thought processesThe language we speak influences the way we remember and perceive and organize the worldAnthropological evidenceHopi contains no words that refer to timeVocabulary differentiationEskimo words for snowNumber systemsColor and memoryLanguage and cognitionA complex relationship…CSD 3117 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. Where did language come from?a. Biologyb. Learningc. CultureII. Localization of Language?a. 4 lobes of braini. Frontal Lobeii. Parietal Lobeiii. Occipital Lobeiv. Temporal LobeIII. Important figuresa. Pierre Brocab. Karl Wernickec. John HughlingsIV. Critical Periods of languageOutline of Current Lecture V. Language and Cognition interfaceVI. Jean Piageta. The Cognitive HypothesisVII. Cognitive Influences in development vs adulthoodVIII. The Social basis of languageIX. Relationship between language and thoughta. Vygotskyb. Sapir-WhorfCurrent Lecture: Language and CognitionThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. Language-cognition interface- Are language processes specific to language or are they aspects of general cognitive processing?- What are the biological bases of language?- Is language special or separate?- Does cognition influence language? Does language influence cognition The cognitive hypothesis- Jean Piageto Development follows a sequence of defined stageso To reach one stage, child must go through proceeding stageso Nothing special about language, rather it is a social and cognitive processing like any other The Cognitive Hypothesis- Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2 years old)o First stage of child’s mental development which mainly involves sensation and motor skills such as hear, sight, feel, taste, move,


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