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UNC-Chapel Hill HIST 151 - Under Roman empire, Romanizing the Mediterranean

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HIST 151 1st Edition Lecture 12Under the Empire, Romanizing the Mediterranean- ~500 years (1st-5th Century CE)- spread of roman influence- “mare nostrum” –our sea- Roman Law & Latin languageo Provided an institutional commonality - Hellenization continues (culture influence continues) Conquered Greece has conquered Romeo Greek drama/theater, philosophy, architecture- Early Christianity sphere- Legacy of empire into European Middle Ageso Roman Law- greek citizenship & stoic brotherhood (universal)o History & philosophy Livy’s history of Rome as decay Cicero’s writings- Important model for how to set up Latino Romanitas vs Christianitas  Medieval “Holy Roman Empire”- Cultureo Adapt & institutionalize & extend- Late Empireo Edward Gibbon’s question: Why does Rome fall? Why’d the empire last so long?- 476 Romulus Augustulus disposed - Chronology1. Pax Romana (Augustus Marcus Aurelus)a. Giulio-Claudians (14-68 CE) according to Suetoniusi. Gaius Caligula (37-41 CE; Nero (45-68 CE)ii. Model for Einhard’s life of Charlemagne b. Flavians (from army)—67-79CEi. Vespasian & Nerva (leaders)c. 5 good emperors i. Hadrian (d. 138 CE), Athens, Rome, Tivoliii. Marcus Aurelius & Stoic (d. 180 CE)2. 3rd century Crisis (communication is a problem)a. civil warsb. foreign invasionsi. Persians’ Goths, Frank, Alenammic. Economic breakdowni. Army & taxes ii. Inflation3. 4th century restoration & shift eastwarda. Diocletian (284- 305 CE)b. Worst Christian persecutions c. The Tetrarchyi. Gaul-Caesarii. Italy and N. Africa- Augustus iii. Illiricum (Greece & North)- Caesariv. Grient- Augustus (eastern part- Asia)d. Constantine (r. 306-337 CE)i. Son of Caesar of Gaulii. Structure of civil gov’t iii. Prefectures divided in dioceses iv. Vicars collect taxes & administer justicev. Problem of taxationvi. Army separate—400,000 menvii. Growth of Christianity & tolerationviii. Center moves to Eastix. Creates Constantinople 1. A new Rome and Alexandria- Economic Reasons for Decline in Westo Urban growth as centers of consumption, not productiono Agricultural base Latifundiao Prosperity in the provinceso Rome weakenso Population declineo Invasions- Social Structureo Wealthy uppercrustsmall middle classurban workers (the collegi)the poor (bread & circuses)slaves & serfs (coloni)o Han- power crisis theory- “fall of Rome”o center moved eastward becomes Byzantium & lasts to mid 15th century o Invasions in West Alaric sacks Rome in 410 CE Atilla the Hun (452 CE) Romulus Augustulus ousted 476 CE- “fall of Rome” in literature o legend of 12 eagleso Nigidius Figulus & Caesar at Rubicono Virgil on Augustus, Rome as the eternal cityo Alaric (410 CE) renewed fearo St. Augustine (354-430 CE) Christians not to blame “City of God” & city of man; god decides –(similar to Plato)******Spread of Christianity is a consequence, not a cause of decline of


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