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FSU CLT 3370 - Notes

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Classical Mythology – CLT 3370Introduction to Mythology/Historical Background- What is a myth?o Something that is worthy of becoming a traditiono Becomes written canon (truth/set of rules)o Can be expressed without words- Mythos – word, story, or tale - Immortality of a mytho Passed down and still incorporated in society- Fluidity of a mytho No exact rules or timelineo Can change depending on Author- Myth and sagao Myth – Story about creation of the world and humankind, including gods’ interactions with humans.o Saga/legend – Story with some historical connection, even if it’s extremely fanciful (heroes)- Is a myth true?o Isn’t a fact but can have truth- Is a myth history?o Euhemerus (300 BCE) Tried to explain the origin of a myth Euhemerism – “History as the basis for famous myths”- Is a myth religion?o Strongly concerned with creation and godso Cultic connections – worship Myth explained why certain parts of animals were sacrificed- Etiological Mythso Explanation of origin of a fact or customo Very frequent in mythology Creationism, evil and good, feelings, etc.- Other interpretationso Sigmund FreudColor-code KeyBold, highlighted, and blue – beginning of new chapter/sectionBold and lavender – important termItalic and lavender – important definition, event, description,etcBold and purple – important personBold, italics, and blue – Roman name of a god/personBold, italics, and orange – Latin term/definitionItalics and orange – the role of specific gods Dreams and symbols Escape from reality Oedipus Complex (wish fulfillment)o Carl Jung Archetypal images - The self, Shadow, Animus, and Anima Collective unconscious (made up from Shadow) Electra complexChapter 2 – Historical Background of Greek Mythology- Classical World – Greece, Thebes, Athens, and Troyo Literature (Homer, Hesiod, Ovid, etc.) Homeric hymns – unknown authorso Oral Traditiono Archaeology 19th – 20th centuries- Heinrich Schliemanno 1822-1890o Found Troy (Anatolia) in 1870 Not exact point, only location Proved reality of Minoan-Mycenaean sagao Founded modern archaeological work- Sir Arthur Evanso 1900o Unearthed palace of Minos Crete – island in Mediterraneano Greece – Settled in Paleolithic period (before 70,000 BCE)o Neolithic evidence abundant (6,000-3,000 BCE)o Religion apparent Emphasis on women- Bronze Ageo Migration from the Easto 3 major periods: Early, Middle, and Late Crete – Minoan based on king; Minos Islands – Cycladic Greece – Helladic- Minoan Civilizationo Matured in the Middle Bronze Ageo Cnossus Grand palace- Reconstructed by Sir Evans- Phaistos = palace Basis of legend of the labyrinth- Slaying of the Minotaur- Home of the double axe (labrys) No walls surrounding the city meant they were confident with their security in ships and sea Increased sense of religion- Mother-fertility goddesso 1400 – Focus shifted to Greece mainland No definite reasono Thera Island, evidence of earthquakes- Caused distortion of power in Crete- Mother Goddesso Minoan Worshipo Earth mother – goddess of fertility and agriculture Nurturer and guardiano Also seen as a destroyero Triple goddess – birth, death, and regenerationo Moon Goddesso Aspects of statues and paintings Snakes – chthonic (connection with the ground/Earth) Bare chest – fertility Headdress and skirt – ritual- Mycenaean Ageo Mycenaeans - People who lived in Mycenaeo Warlords/chieftains Took goods as payment for protectiono Greek language (Linear B which mentioned the gods)o Worshipped sky god, Zeus Change from mother to father godo Late Hellenic Period (1600-1100 BCE)o Sky God Sky father Complement of Mother Earth Zeus – lightening, clouds, birds- Archaic Periodo 800-483 BCEo Monarchieso Invention of Greek alphabet Homer Hesiod (Theogony – Birth of the gods)- Classical Periodo 480-323 BCEo Destruction of Athenian Acropolis by Persians in 480 BCEo Death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE Hellenistic Periodo Period of famous art, playwrights, etc. Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripideso Rome Foundation 753 BCE- Romulus and Remuso Twins, mother raped by Marso Fratricide – Romulus killed Remuso Romulus = founder of Rome Roman Republic 509 BCE Roman Empire 27 BCE- Octavian given name Augustus Caesar (emperor)Similar gods and myths to Greece, just different names- Italian Peninsulao Etruscans Tuscany Unique language 10th/9th century until 3rd century (conquered by Romanso Magna Gracia Gods and goddesses- Similar to Greeks- Unique/unknown equivalences Prophecy/divination (borrowed by Romans)- Haruspicyo Examination of entrails (liver)- Auguryo Watching birds to tell the futureChapter 3 – Creation Myths- Common Motifs/Themeso Creation of opposites and parallelso Father/son rivalry  Connection to Oedipus Complexo Succession of gods Sneaky wife Young rebellious sono Varying types of creation- Hesiodo 700 BCE Archaic period of Greeceo Written in Dactylic Hexameter Epic meter (Homer, Virgil, Ovid, etc)o Provides first literary account of creation story Primarily in Theogony (works and days)- Didactic literature- Contains etiological mythso Homeric Hymns 33 hymns to Olympian gods Composed at different times by different authors (8th-4th centuries)- Works and Dayso Hesiod plays role of farmer and shepherd Inspired by Muses on Mt. Helicono MusesThe 9 daughters of Zeus  Emphasized, particularly with ability to inspire (inspired Hesiod) Sing and danced for the gods on Olympus Revelations come from infallible knowledgeo Creation story Muses told Hesiod  On Mt. Helicod- Setting for Theogony- Main place of worship for Muses; “Mouseion” o Chaos Void of sorts; absence of things First in existence (not a god)o Primordial gods Came from Chaos Gaia (or Earth) Tartarus – place in depths of the earth (underworld) Erebus – gloomy darkness of Tartarus Night – brought bright air and day Eros – love god-Ovid’s version of the Creation Mytho 700 years after Hesiodo Chaos Unformed mass of elementsA god (unnamed) formed the order of the universe from chaos- Uranus and Gaiao Uranus (sky) produced by Gaia  Equal, lover, and later her subordinateo Hieros gamos – “Sacred” or “holy marriage”o Had the 12 Titans, 3 one-eyed Cyclopes, and Hecatonchires (3 one hundred handers with 50 heads)- 12


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