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SPC2608 Unit 2 ExamChapter 16 Using LanguageChapter 24 Persuasive SpeakingChapter 25 Speaking on Special OccasionsSPC2608 Unit 2 ExamChapter 16 Using Language- Prepare your speeches for the earo Strive for simplicity When deciding between synonyms always pick the simpler word  Jargon – the specialized “insider” language of a given profession o Be concise  Try to use fewer rather than more words and shorter sentenceso Make frequent use of repetition  Good speeches repeat key words and phraseso Use personal pronouns This draws the audience into the message - Choose concrete words and vivid imageso Help audience members grasp meaning and encourages involvemento Use concrete language  Concrete language – conveys meaning that is specific, tangible, and definite Abstract language – general or nonspecific, leaving meaning open to interpretation o Offer vivid imagery  Imagery – concrete language that uses the sense of smell, taste, sight, hearing, and touch to paint mental pictures Figures of speech – expressions such as metaphors, similes, and analogies, in which words are used in a nonliteral fashion to achieve rhetorical effect - Simile – explicitly compares one thing to another using like or as - Metaphor – compares two things but does so by describing one thing asactually being the other- Analogy – an extended metaphor or simile that clarifies an unfamiliar concept by comparing it to a more familiar one  Avoid clichés and mixed metaphors - Choose words that build credibility o Use words appropriately Uphold conventional rules of grammar Code-switching – mixing casual language, dialects, and slang into your speech - Can sometimes be effective o Use words accurately The audience loses confidence when the speaker misuses words  Malapropisms – the inadvertent, incorrect uses of a word or phrase in the place of one that sounds like it o Avoid the “Shock Jock” syndrome Term for a radio host that uses suggestive languageo Use the active voice Voice – a feature of verbs that indicates the subject’s relationship to the action o Use culturally sensitive and gender-neutral language Respect your listener’s cultural beliefs, norms, and traditions - Choose words that create a lasting impression o Denotative vs. Connotative Meaning Denotative – literal or dictionary definition  Connotative – the special association that different people bring to bear on it o Use repetition to create a rhythm  Implants the ideas into the listener’s mind Anaphora – the speaker repeats a word or phrase at the beginning of successivephrases, clauses, or sentences o Use alliteration for poetic quality Alliteration – the repetition of the same sounds, usually initial consonants, in two or more neighboring words or syllables o Experiment with parallelism  Parallelism – the arrangement of words, phrases, or sentences in a similar form - Antithesis – setting off two strongly contrasting ideas in balanced opposition - Orally numbering your points- Grouping speech concepts or ideas into three parallel grammatical elements or triads - Repeating a key word or phrase that emphasizes a central or recurring idea of speech Chapter 24 Persuasive Speaking - Persuasive speech – the goal is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, and acts of others- Focus on motivation – success involves attention to human psychology o Make your message personal and relevant o Demonstrate how the proposed change will benefit the audience o Set modest goalso Target issues the audience feel strongly about o Demonstrate how an attitude or behavior might keep listeners from feeling satisfiedo Establish your credibility - Balance reason and emotion o Persuasive speeches are built on argumentso Appeal to pathos and logos o Base your emotional appeal on sound reasoning - Stress your credibility o Demonstrate your trustworthiness by presenting the topic honestlyo Establish a feeling of identification or commonality and goodwill o Acknowledge personal expertise (if any)o Be vibrant and charismatic - Target Listener’s needs o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - Encourage mental engagement o Two routes  Central processing – they are motivated and able to think critically about the message Peripheral processing – pay little attention and respond to the message as being irrelevant, too complex to follow, or unimportant - Construct sound arguments o Claim – states the speaker’s conclusion based on the evidence o Evidence – substantiates the claim o Warrant – explains why the evidence proves the claim o Identify the nature of your claims  Claims of facts – focus on whether something is or is not true or whether something will or will not happen  Claims of value – address issues of judgments by attempting to show something is right/wrong, good/bad, worthy/unworthy Claims of policy – recommend that a specific course of action be taken and approved o Use convincing evidence  Every claim must be supported by sufficient evidence  Address the other side of the argument o Use effective reasoning Reasoning – the process of drawing conclusions from evidence o avoid fallacies in reasoning - a false or erroneous statement or an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning  Ad Hominems (Ad-Homs) – Insulting or attacking the person rather than the person’s argument. Name-calling.- Ex. “Timbo’s arguments are stupid because he’s a Gator Fan.” Inconsistency - A contradiction or tension between different parts of an argument. Sometimes between multiple arguments.- Ex. “Individuals should have the freedom to make decisions. In particular, we do not trust the government to regulate our personal lives. Marijuana should be illegal, though.” Post-Hoc – Assuming a causal relationship simply because one thing follows another.- Ex. “They are 41-1 when they kneel the ball at the end of the game.” Spuriousness – Other things that could have produced the effect.- Ex. “I drank 16 beers and then all of these bikini models showed up. Drinking beer must attract bikini models.” Ambiguity - Using a word or phrase in such a way that its meaning is not clear, or can be taken in more that one way. Using terms for which not everyone is aware of the intended meaning or definition.- Ex. “The sign said ‘Slow Children’ so I assumed all of the children in this neighborhood were poor

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FSU SPC 2608 - Chapter 16 Using Language

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