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SPC2608 Unit 2 Exam Chapter 16 Using Language Prepare your speeches for the ear o Strive for simplicity When deciding between synonyms always pick the simpler word Jargon the specialized insider language of a given profession o Be concise Try to use fewer rather than more words and shorter sentences o Make frequent use of repetition Good speeches repeat key words and phrases o Use personal pronouns This draws the audience into the message Choose concrete words and vivid images o Help audience members grasp meaning and encourages involvement o Use concrete language Concrete language conveys meaning that is specific tangible and definite Abstract language general or nonspecific leaving meaning open to interpretation o Offer vivid imagery Imagery concrete language that uses the sense of smell taste sight hearing and touch to paint mental pictures Figures of speech expressions such as metaphors similes and analogies in which words are used in a nonliteral fashion to achieve rhetorical effect Simile explicitly compares one thing to another using like or as Metaphor compares two things but does so by describing one thing as actually being the other Analogy an extended metaphor or simile that clarifies an unfamiliar concept by comparing it to a more familiar one Avoid clich s and mixed metaphors Choose words that build credibility o Use words appropriately Uphold conventional rules of grammar Code switching mixing casual language dialects and slang into your speech Can sometimes be effective o Use words accurately The audience loses confidence when the speaker misuses words Malapropisms the inadvertent incorrect uses of a word or phrase in the place of one that sounds like it o Avoid the Shock Jock syndrome Term for a radio host that uses suggestive language o Use the active voice Voice a feature of verbs that indicates the subject s relationship to the action o Use culturally sensitive and gender neutral language Respect your listener s cultural beliefs norms and traditions Choose words that create a lasting impression o Denotative vs Connotative Meaning Denotative literal or dictionary definition Connotative the special association that different people bring to bear on it o Use repetition to create a rhythm Implants the ideas into the listener s mind Anaphora the speaker repeats a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases clauses or sentences o Use alliteration for poetic quality Alliteration the repetition of the same sounds usually initial consonants in two or more neighboring words or syllables o Experiment with parallelism Parallelism the arrangement of words phrases or sentences in a similar form Antithesis setting off two strongly contrasting ideas in balanced opposition Orally numbering your points Grouping speech concepts or ideas into three parallel grammatical elements or triads Repeating a key word or phrase that emphasizes a central or recurring idea of speech Chapter 24 Persuasive Speaking Persuasive speech the goal is to influence the attitudes beliefs values and acts of others Focus on motivation success involves attention to human psychology o Make your message personal and relevant o Demonstrate how the proposed change will benefit the audience o Set modest goals o Target issues the audience feel strongly about o Demonstrate how an attitude or behavior might keep listeners from feeling satisfied o Establish your credibility Balance reason and emotion o Persuasive speeches are built on arguments o Appeal to pathos and logos o Base your emotional appeal on sound reasoning Stress your credibility o Demonstrate your trustworthiness by presenting the topic honestly o Establish a feeling of identification or commonality and goodwill o Acknowledge personal expertise if any o Be vibrant and charismatic Target Listener s needs o Maslow s hierarchy of needs Encourage mental engagement o Two routes Central processing they are motivated and able to think critically about the message Peripheral processing pay little attention and respond to the message as being irrelevant too complex to follow or unimportant Construct sound arguments o Claim states the speaker s conclusion based on the evidence o Evidence substantiates the claim o Warrant explains why the evidence proves the claim o Identify the nature of your claims Claims of facts focus on whether something is or is not true or whether something will or will not happen Claims of value address issues of judgments by attempting to show something is right wrong good bad worthy unworthy Claims of policy recommend that a specific course of action be taken and approved o Use convincing evidence Every claim must be supported by sufficient evidence Address the other side of the argument o Use effective reasoning Reasoning the process of drawing conclusions from evidence o avoid fallacies in reasoning a false or erroneous statement or an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning Ad Hominems Ad Homs Insulting or attacking the person rather than the person s argument Name calling Ex Timbo s arguments are stupid because he s a Gator Fan Inconsistency A contradiction or tension between different parts of an argument Sometimes between multiple arguments Ex Individuals should have the freedom to make decisions In particular we do not trust the government to regulate our personal lives Marijuana should be illegal though Post Hoc Assuming a causal relationship simply because one thing follows another Ex They are 41 1 when they kneel the ball at the end of the game Spuriousness Other things that could have produced the effect Ex I drank 16 beers and then all of these bikini models showed up Drinking beer must attract bikini models Ambiguity Using a word or phrase in such a way that its meaning is not clear or can be taken in more that one way Using terms for which not everyone is aware of the intended meaning or definition Ex The sign said Slow Children so I assumed all of the children in this neighborhood were poor athletes Begging the Question Circular thought demonstrates a conclusion by means of premises that assume that conclusion Ex We know God exists because the Bible says God exists We know the Bible is right because God wrote it Hasty Conclusion Over Generalization Making a judgment based on insufficient evidence Ex This Catholic priest is a child molester therefore all Catholic priests must be child molesters Is Ought Legal Moral Assuming that because something is a certain way it ought to be that way Ex Marijuana is

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FSU SPC 2608 - Chapter 16 Using Language

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