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SPC2608 Unit 1 Exam Chapter 1 2 Becoming a speaker and Overview Communication process of sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages o Intrapersonal communication with yourself o Dyadic happens between two people o Interpersonal communication between people with an identifiable relationship o Impersonal communication about general topics o Small group communication between 3 to 10 people Goal directed and social o Computer mediated computer mediates the communication Ex Text email instant message o Intercultural two or more people from different cultures interact o Mass communication produced and transmitted via the media to large audiences Skills employees seek o Communication verbal and written o Strong work ethic o Teamwork o Initiative o Interpersonal Content words we use Delivery how we convey those words Decoding process of interpreting the message Feedback how the audience responds Channel medium through which the message is sent Noise interference with the message Shared meaning the mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience Methods of delivery o Impromptu limited preparation o Manuscript from a script written out entirely o Memorized speaking a full script from memory o Extemporaneous from an outline after careful research and preparation 4 things to consider o Your audience o Does it demonstrate good content o Does it have clear structure Macro structure intro body conclusion o Are we delivering it effectively Types of nonverbal communication o Proxemics space distance o Chronemics meanings we attach to time o Appearance conveys credibility o Eye contact most expressive 90 o Body language Gestures posture facial expressions motivated movement o Voice quality what distinguishes your voice from others o Vocal variety rate pitch volume Chapter 3 Managing Speech Anxiety Fear is normal Communication apprehension the fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with others o Trait like nervous or anxious about speaking in any situation o State like anxiety appears in certain situations Methods for dealing with anxiety o Systematic desensitization using coping strategies o Cognitive reconstruction using rational arguments o Skills building practicing and learning skills Unconscious incompetence Conscious incompetence Conscious competence Unconscious competence Use strategies to Boost your confidence o Rehearse to build confidence o Modify thoughts and attitudes o Visualize success Activate the relaxation response o Meditate to calm yourself o Use stress control breathing Use movement to minimize anxiety o Practice natural gestures o Move as you speak How to get there o Acknowledge the issue o Don t wait write a good solid speech o Defamatory potentially harms an individual s reputation at work or in the o Reckless disregard for the truth knowing what you are saying is false but o Public discourse speech involving issues of importance to the larger community o Practice Learn from feedback Chapter 4 Ethical Public Speaking Use the rights of your free speech responsibly community saying it anyway Contribute to positive public discourse o Invective verbal attacks o Follow the rules of engagement are unacceptable Observe ethical ground rules Verbal attacks irrational arguments and other conversation stoppers o Dignity listeners feel worthy honored and respected o Integrity signals the speaker s incorruptibility o Trustworthiness combination of honesty and dependability o Respect demonstrated by addressing audience members as unique human beings o Responsibility being accountable for what you say o Fairness making a genuine effort to see all sides of an issue Avoid offensive speech and plagiarism o Hate speech any offensive communication o Plagiarism the passing off of another person s information as one s own Orally acknowledge and cite your sources o Common knowledge information that is likely to be known by many people o Direct quotations statements made verbatim by someone else Should always be acknowledged in a speech o Paraphrase a restatement of someone else s ideas opinions or theories in the speaker s own words Must acknowledge the original source o Summary a brief overview of someone else s ideas opinions or theories Fair use copyright and ethical speaking o Copyright legal protection afforded the original creators of literary and artistic works o Public domain anyone may reproduce it o Fair use permits the limited use of copyrighted works without permission for the purposes of scholarships criticism comment new reporting teaching or research o Creative commons an organization that allows creators of works to decide how they want other people to use their copyrighted works Chapter 5 Listeners and Speakers Listening the conscious act of receiving comprehending interpreting evaluating and responding to messages o Selective perception people pay attention selectively to certain messages while Recognize that we listen selectively ignoring others Listen responsibly Strive for the open exchange of ideas o Dialogic communication the open sharing of ideas in an atmosphere of respect Anticipate the common obstacles to listening o Active listening listening that is focused and purposeful o Minimize external and internal distractions Listening distraction anything that competes for attention we are trying to give something else Guard against script writing and defensive listening o Scriptwriting when we focus on what we rather than the speaker are going to say next o Defensive listening deciding either that they won t like what the speaker is going to say or that they know better Beware of laziness and overconfidence Work to overcome cultural bias o Watch for Idioms colloquial expressions such as apple of his eye that non native speakers might not know Speaking too fast or too slow Non verbal cues that suggest listeners may not comprehend you Steps in setting listening goals o Identify needs o Indicate performance standards o Make an action statement o Assess goal achievement Evaluate evidence and reasoning o Evaluate speaker s evidence o Analyze the speaker s assumption and biases o Assess the speakers reasoning o Consider multiple perspectives o Summarize and assess the relevant facts and evidence Offer constructive and compassionate feedback o Be honest and fair o Adjust to the speaker s style o Be compassionate o Be selective Chapter 6 Analyzing the audience Audience analysis the process of gathering and analyzing information

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