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Lecture notes:Audiences:6/21. Audience centered : Think about the audiencesa. Don’t be Ethnocentric: your ideas are superior b. Don’t Pander: Change with the whims of the audience. 2. Listening: We only remember 50% of what we heara. Hearing: a biological processb. Listening: Making a conscious effort to hear, giving thoughtful attention to what you hear and understanding it. 3. Components of listening: a. Hear: physically being able to hearb. Attend: Choosing to attend to listenc. Understand d. Remember: Making mental connections4. Functions of Listening: a. Information Reception : Understanding/Retentionb. Empathy : Feeling what the speaker is feelingc. Criticism/Discrimination : Critical listening d. Others: Affirmation 5. Types of listening:a. Discriminative : Looking for hidden information, facts. i. Often with negative connotationii. Ex. When listening to political speakersb. Comprehensive: understandingi. Ex. In your classesc. Appreciative: To enjoyi. Ex. With Musicd. Empathetic: to show you carei. Ex. With your Friendse. Critical : to evaluate the message6. Barriers to Listening:a. Hearing Problemb. Amount of input: Cognitive overload c. Personal concernsd. Rapid thoughtse. Noise7. Poor listening habits: a. Pseudo Listening: imitation of the real thingb. Stage Hogging: Only interested in listening so it can be your turn to speakc. Defensive listening: taking innocent comments as personal attacks. 8. Tips to help remember:a. Organizationb. Association: Connect information to each other c. Visualization d. Repetition Persuasion6/91. Argument: Articulation of a position with supporting evidence and reason 2. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence: influencing people’s attitudes, beliefs, values and behaviorsa. Attitude: Our general evaluation of thingsb. Beliefs: The way we perceive reality c. Value: Enduring beliefs about what is right and wrong3. Parts of MMS: a. Attention b. Need : State the problem and why we should focus on iti. Statementii. Illustration iii. Ramificationsiv. Pointing c. Satisfaction : The solution i. Explainii. Demonstration iii. Examplesiv. Meet Objectionsd. Visualization : See into the futurei. Positiveii. Negativeiii. Contrast e. Action: Tell us what to do4. Ethical Speeches: Reaching the desired ends with honest meansa. Persuasion : “The faculty of observing in given case with the available means of persuasion” –Aristotle b. Herbermas’ Spheres of influence :i. Strategic communication is challenged by creating understanding c. Elaboration likelihood Model : We process information centrally or Peripherallyi. Centrally : Giving thoughtful consideration to the ideas and content1. Straightforward 2. Complete 3. High-level 4. Actually cares about topic5. Subject must have substance ii. Peripheral : Persuaded by outside factors, not just information 5. Factors for Ethical Speechesa. Context : what is being saidi. Equal Opportunity, Critical Receivers, Free of Agendasb. Agent : whom is saying speechi. Takes situation seriously, appeals to the best in people c. Receiver : who is listening to the speech i. Informed about important topics, ii. Know your own biasesiii. Aware of methods of persuasion 6. Credibility and Integrity a. Aggressiveness: Winning by inflicting psychological pain by attacking the other person not the argumentb. Enlightened Self-Interest : Knowing that we have a goal of the argument and the other party does too7. Fallacious Reasoning: a. Dishonestyb. Lies: deliberate attempt to hide/distort informationi. Reasons to lie: 1. Save face2. Avoid Tension3. Guide Social Interaction4. Affect interpersonal relationships5. Personal power c. Pistos: Proof8. Ethos: Character of the speakera. Initial: What you walk up withb. Derived: What happens during your speech c. Terminal: How your speech ends9. Ethical Fitness: a. Credibilityb. Integrity c. Civility 10.Ground rules for Ethical Fitness:a. Trustworthinessb. Respectc. Responsibility d. Fairnesse. Caringf. Citizenship 11.Pathos:a. Appeals to Emotions, needs, desiresb. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs12.Logos:a. Appeals to logic and Reason b. Types of Logos appealsi. Syllogism: Major premise (obvious statement). Minor Premise (extension of major premise), Conclusion (Based on Major and Minor) ii. Enthymeme: We fill in the blanks. Missing one of the three syllogism partsSpecial Occasion Speeches6/91. Types of SO: a. Entertaining, celebrating, Commemorative, inspiring, setting a social agenda2. SO Speech: Short commemorative speech, which uses language to bring speech to life, effectively using a manuscript. a. Employs imagery : Paints a picture with your wordsb. Stylistic devices i. Anaphora: Repeating key wordsii. Antithesis: Opposites within one sentence iii. Alliteration: Repeating a consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words iv. Assonance: Alliteration but with vowel sounds v. Personification vi. Simile/Metaphor c. Fresh Language : Avoid overused speech d. Vary Rhythm e. HumorBook Notes: Chapter 16: Using Language1. Style: is the specific word choices and rhetorical devices speakers use to express their ideas2. Prepare your speeches for the ear: a. Strive for Simplicity: use familiar words and avoid Jargonb. Repetition is key: add emphasis for important ideas. Adds rhythm and drama c. Use personal pronouns: makes your argument more personal, draws the listener in. 3. Chose Concrete Words and Vivid Imagery:a. Concrete words: Words that are specific tangible and definite i. Avoid weak and mundane verbs b. Use Figures of Speech: Making comparisons between the unfamiliar with the familiar however they can be misleadingi. Simile: comparisons using like or asii. Metaphor: Comparing something a actually being another iii. Analogy: An extended metaphor or smile 4. Choose words that build Credibility: Language that is appropriate, accurate, assertive and respectful a. Use Words Appropriately:i. Use words whose meaning is clear and your use is appropriate for your audienceb. Use words accurately: i. Beware of Malapropisms: the incorrect uses of a word or phrase in place of one that sounds like it 1. It’s a strange receptacle for It’s a strange Spectacle c. Use an Active Voice: i. Voice: the feature of verbs that indicates the subject’s relationship to the action 1. Active Voice: When the subject performs the action a. Ms. Carlos announced the test for Monday2. Passive Voice: When the subject is the receiver of

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