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SPC 2608: EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDEAudience & Listening Skills Be Audience-centered Don’t be ethnocentric- Ethnocentrism: is the belief that our cultural norms and perspectives are superior to others. Don’t pander- Pandering: abandoning our own convictions to cater to the whims of others. Most of us only remember 50% of what we hear. Hearing: the biological process between ear and brain. Listening: making a conscious effort to hear. Or “the process of giving thoughtful attention to another person’s words and understanding what you hear.” Components of Listening Hearing Attending Understanding Remembering Functions of Listening Information reception Empathy  Criticism and discrimination Other-affirmation Types of listening Discriminative: when we listen for the hidden meaning. Comprehensive: when we listen in order to understand. Appreciative: when we listen for pure enjoyment. Empathetic: when we listen to someone else’s problem or situation in order to lend support not advice. Critical: when we hear, understand, evaluate, and assign worth to a message. Barriers to listening Hearing problems Amount of input Personal concerns (“semantic noise”) Rapid thought Noise Poor listening habits  Pseudo listening: an imitation of the real thing. Stage hogging: only interested in what we have to say. Defensive listening: taking innocent comments as personal attacks. Four tips for remembering things1 Organization: find pattern, order Association: make connections with what you already know. Visualization: picture what’s happening. Repetition: repeat verbs and phrases (while using 3 tips above) Five Key Elements of MMS (Monroe’s Motivated Sequence) Attention: get it! (intro) Need = the problem. (body) Satisfaction = the solution. (body) Visualization: helps us to see into the future. (body) Action: tell us exactly what to do. (conclusion)Persuasion Use Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Persuasive Speech: you’re looking to influence other people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, and/or behaviors.  Behaviors are the easiest thing to change. Attitudes: our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events. (2nd easiest) Beliefs: the way we perceive reality – our feelings about what is true. (3rd easiest) Values: enduring values about what is right or wrong. (hardest thing to change) Ask: what do you want your audience to do? Buy, change, choose, donate, establish, etc. Argument is articulating a position with support of evidence and reason – this shows our willingness to argue our point of view. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (MMS) Outline Introduction- 1. Attention- 2. Topic- 3. Relevance- 4. Credibility- 5. Preview Body- 1. Need- 2. Satisfaction- 3. Visualization Conclusion- 1. Call to actionEthical Persuasion Ethical communication and persuasion are ideal. What is persuasion? Aristotle called persuasion “the art” or “rhetoric” and defined it as:2- “The faculty of observing in a given case the available means of persuasion.” Persuasion: symbolic, non-coercive influence.- Symbolic communication: language is our symbolic representation of reality.- Non-coercive: not forced, we have a choice. Persuasion as enlightenment An opportunity to view a different aspect. Theory of Communicative Action (Jergan Habermas) Strategic communication: persuading at all costs (bad) Communicative action: arguing to create understanding (not just to win – good) Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Audience members will mentally process your persuasive message by one of two routes, depending on their degree of involvement in the message.- Central processing: they give thoughtful consideration to the ideas and content in the message; they are motivated and able to think critically about a message. Central route- Peripheral processing: they may be persuaded by factors that have nothing to do with the actual content of the message itself; they pay little attention and respond to the message as being irrelevant, too complex to follow, or just plain unimportant. Weak messages Low receiver involvement and motivation Not processed cognitively Ethical persuasion should be careful, deliberate, and non-offensive communication. Checklist for responsible persuasion: (this is explained further in the “ethical persuasion” Bb handout) Content – where, the climate- Equal opportunity to persuade- Complete revelation of agendas- Critical receivers Agent – the persuader- Takes communication seriously- Fosters informed choice- Appeals to the best in people Receiver – the audience- Aware of attempts to influence- Informed about important topics- Know their own biases- Aware of methods of persuasion Argument: articulating a stated position with support of evidence and reason. Aggressiveness: winning by inflicting psychological pain by attacking the other person or their self-concept instead of the issue. Our goal should be communicating ethically vs. simply trying to win. Enlightened self-interest: aware that you’re both trying to argue to a particular goal.3 Why do we communicate in other ways? Fallacious reasoning (Bb handout – these are common fallacies)- Ad Hominem - Attacking the person rather than the person’s argument. Name calling.- Inconsistency - A contradiction in word or action without justification.- Invincible Ignorance - Insisting on the legitimacy of an idea or principle despite contradictory facts.- Slippery Slope - Argument which bases objection to a particular action because it supposedly will inevitably lead to a similar but less desirable action, which in turn will lead toan even less desirable action, and so on down the slippery slope.- Ambiguity - Using a word or phrase in such a way that its meaning is not clear, or can be taken in more that one way. Using terms for which not everyone is aware of the intended meaning or definition.- Hasty Conclusion - Making a judgment based on insufficient evidence.- Is/Ought - Assuming that because something is a certain way, it ought to be that way.- Provincialism - Seeing things exclusively through the eyes of one’s own group, organization, or affiliation.- Questionable Claim - A claim that is too broad or general to survive scrutiny. “Best…

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