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SPC 2608 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Audience Listening Skills Be Audience centered Don t be ethnocentric Don t pander Ethnocentrism is the belief that our cultural norms and perspectives are superior to others Pandering abandoning our own convictions to cater to the whims of others Most of us only remember 50 of what we hear Hearing the biological process between ear and brain Listening making a conscious effort to hear Or the process of giving thoughtful attention to another person s words and understanding what you hear Components of Listening Hearing Attending Understanding Remembering Functions of Listening Information reception Empathy Criticism and discrimination Other affirmation Types of listening Discriminative when we listen for the hidden meaning Comprehensive when we listen in order to understand Appreciative when we listen for pure enjoyment Empathetic when we listen to someone else s problem or situation in order to lend support not advice Critical when we hear understand evaluate and assign worth to a message Barriers to listening Hearing problems Amount of input Noise Poor listening habits Personal concerns semantic noise Rapid thought Pseudo listening an imitation of the real thing Stage hogging only interested in what we have to say Defensive listening taking innocent comments as personal attacks Four tips for remembering things 1 Organization find pattern order Association make connections with what you already know Visualization picture what s happening Repetition repeat verbs and phrases while using 3 tips above Five Key Elements of MMS Monroe s Motivated Sequence Attention get it intro Need the problem body Action tell us exactly what to do conclusion Satisfaction the solution body Visualization helps us to see into the future body Persuasion Use Monroe s Motivated Sequence Persuasive Speech you re looking to influence other people s attitudes beliefs values and or Behaviors are the easiest thing to change behaviors Attitudes our general evaluations of people ideas objects or events 2nd easiest Beliefs the way we perceive reality our feelings about what is true 3 rd easiest Values enduring values about what is right or wrong hardest thing to change Ask what do you want your audience to do Buy change choose donate establish etc to argue our point of view Monroe s Motivated Sequence MMS Outline Argument is articulating a position with support of evidence and reason this shows our willingness 1 Attention 2 Topic 3 Relevance 4 Credibility 5 Preview Introduction Body Conclusion 1 Need 2 Satisfaction 3 Visualization 1 Call to action Ethical Persuasion Ethical communication and persuasion are ideal What is persuasion Aristotle called persuasion the art or rhetoric and defined it as 2 The faculty of observing in a given case the available means of persuasion Symbolic communication language is our symbolic representation of reality Persuasion symbolic non coercive influence Non coercive not forced we have a choice Persuasion as enlightenment An opportunity to view a different aspect Theory of Communicative Action Jergan Habermas Strategic communication persuading at all costs bad Communicative action arguing to create understanding not just to win good Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM Audience members will mentally process your persuasive message by one of two routes depending on their degree of involvement in the message Central processing they give thoughtful consideration to the ideas and content in the message they are motivated and able to think critically about a message Central route Peripheral processing they may be persuaded by factors that have nothing to do with the actual content of the message itself they pay little attention and respond to the message as being irrelevant too complex to follow or just plain unimportant Weak messages Low receiver involvement and motivation Not processed cognitively Ethical persuasion should be careful deliberate and non offensive communication Checklist for responsible persuasion this is explained further in the ethical persuasion Bb handout Content where the climate Equal opportunity to persuade Complete revelation of agendas Critical receivers Agent the persuader Takes communication seriously Fosters informed choice Appeals to the best in people Receiver the audience Aware of attempts to influence Informed about important topics Know their own biases Aware of methods of persuasion Argument articulating a stated position with support of evidence and reason Aggressiveness winning by inflicting psychological pain by attacking the other person or their self concept instead of the issue Our goal should be communicating ethically vs simply trying to win Enlightened self interest aware that you re both trying to argue to a particular goal 3 Why do we communicate in other ways Fallacious reasoning Bb handout these are common fallacies Ad Hominem Attacking the person rather than the person s argument Name calling Inconsistency A contradiction in word or action without justification Invincible Ignorance Insisting on the legitimacy of an idea or principle despite contradictory facts Slippery Slope Argument which bases objection to a particular action because it supposedly will inevitably lead to a similar but less desirable action which in turn will lead to an even less desirable action and so on down the slippery slope Ambiguity Using a word or phrase in such a way that its meaning is not clear or can be taken in more that one way Using terms for which not everyone is aware of the intended meaning or definition Hasty Conclusion Making a judgment based on insufficient evidence Is Ought Assuming that because something is a certain way it ought to be that way Provincialism Seeing things exclusively through the eyes of one s own group organization or affiliation Questionable Claim A claim that is too broad or general to survive scrutiny Best only most Straw Man Presenting an opponent s position in an altered version that is easier to attack that the original Changing the issue Two Wrongs Make A Right Defending wrongdoing by pointing to similar behavior of others Dishonesty bend the truth lie cover up info Motives for lying Turner s To save face To avoid tension or conflict To guide social interaction To affect interpersonal relationships To achieve personal power Aristotle Pistos Proof Appeals Logos reason or logical What is said our ability to articulate reality Facts reason statistics evidence that supports an argument Ethos credibility

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