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FSU CHD 2220 - Cognitive Development

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CHD2220 Chapter 9: redo [Type text]• Cognitive Development  Lecture:• In the 1st two years, some kids do a lot more exploring of objects.• Feeling what the object feels like and looks like. Explores with their hands and eyes. And children will have more of this hands on and hands one experience become better able at generating those images in their mind and once they have those images they can manipulate them and think of them. If they are not so hands on, they do not think as much etc. these symbols ---symbolic reasoning. • Age 3• The mind is transforming from a sensory motor schema based problem solving, (doing), to an I can think before I do mentality. But it will roll in slowly. o Preoperational Stage Symbolic Function• (etext)o Deferred Imitation- children observe the behavior of a model and imitate that behavior when the model is no longer present. o Symbolic or Pretend Play- Children pretend that an object is something other than what it really is. Like am empty cup has tea for a tea party etc. o Shifting Context- performing routine behaviors outside their typical settings. Like shifting a old box into a car or kitchen. o Mental Images- internal representations of external objects or events.  Preconcepts• (Lecture)CHD2220 Chapter 9: redo [Type text]o Syncretism- The collection of the mind of collecting itty bitty pieces and collects images and glues them together, associates, and produces what he called a preconcept. o Preconceptual Understanding- mind takes itty bitty pieces, and puts them all together, and has a preconcept. She will then use that to think about that situation using that preconcept. • (Etext)o Preconcepts- disorganized, illogical representations of the childs experiences.  Transduction• (lecture)o When you got a lousy preconcept, you got to think transductively. o Induction (lecture)We derive general principles from particular examples (etext) we derive general principles from particular examples. .  Ex: an eight-year-old boy who observes that teachers have favored girls in each of his classes, might induce the general principle that girls are teacher's pets.o Deduction (lecture) We use general principles to predict particular outcomes: the same child couse use his general principle to deduce that when he enters the next grade, his teacher will be likely to favor girls. (etext) we use general principles to predict particular outcomes: the same child could use his general principle to deduce that when he enteres the next grade, his new teacher will be likely to favor girls.CHD2220 Chapter 9: redo [Type text]o Transduction (etext & lecture) Piaget believed that preoperational children are incapable of thinking inductively or deductively. Instead, they think by transduction, reasoning within the unsystematic collections of images which constitute their preconcepts. Leshonda believed that Little Red Riding Hood took the fine red hat from the wolf because he had been "so bad." Her logic is transductive: private and meaningful only within her preconceptual understanding of the story. Egocentricity• (lecture)o With young kids 2-3 etc. you see Egocentricity. o The inability of a young child to take the perspective of another individual on some given situation. The inability for a 3 year old to see themselves through someone elses eyes or understand the emotional experiences that someone may have in a given situationo 3 mountain problemo Sat a child down at a table that had 3 mountains that differed different from each other. He sat the child down and asked the child to draw a picture of the mountains. Then they asked for them to draw the mountain from what piaget’s view. They drew the same pic. They don’t realize that theres another view. o 5,6,7 is when they breakdown the egocentric response and start understanding. “theory of mind” that other people may see the world differently, people think differently than you. o• (etext)o According to Piaget one of the major limitations of preoperational thought is the child's inability to conceptualize the perspective of other individuals - a quality he called egocentrism. His use of the term did notCHD2220 Chapter 9: redo [Type text]imply that young children are selfish; merely that they have difficulty seeing the world as others see it. Irreversibility• (lecture)o Young preschoolers that an irreversible thought process. What that means is that 2,3,4 year olds can think their way through a problem and plan to do this first, than this second, than this third. The problem is they can reverse the thought process and go 3,2,1. So they will take things apart and put it back together. They also get lost in physical situations. Say you visit someone’s apartment and they have to potty. So you tell him how to get there, they go down, they are down for a few minutes, and then you hear crying and he said he was lost cus he didn’t know how to get back from the bathroom. • (etext)o Irreversibility- the notion that preschoolers cannot mentally reverse their transducting sequences of thought. For instance, when a three-year-old girl is asked to tell the exact path that she takes to walk to a friend's house and then is asked to retrace her steps on that path, it is likely that she will have difficulty Domains• Classificationo (etext) Cass Inclusion- class must be smaller than any more inclusive class in which it is contained. Ex: while adults are aware that all dogs are animals, they also know logically that not all animals are dogs. • Quantityo (Lecture) Failure to ConserveCHD2220 Chapter 9: redo [Type text]• Conservation is the ability for all of us to realize things don’t change. Some things stay constant. o Ex: like the juice and cup project. They think that the taller cup that holds the same has more juice when in reality it has the same amount as the other cup.o (etext) Quantitive reasoning refers to the ability to estimate the amount o things and changes in the amounts of things interms of number, size, weight, volume, speed, time and distance.  One to One principle- One and only one distinctive number name must be assigned to each item in the array. No item should be counted more than once and no number used more than once. Although preschool children seem to understand the principle, they tend to make more errors as the number of items grows larger. The Stable Order Principle- Number names must be assigned in a stable,


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