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FSU CHD 2220 - Lecture notes

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CH. 9, 10, 12, 13Symbolic ReasoningBabies act on impulsesImpulsive people make a lot of errorsWhen you take your time; tend to make less mistakesPreschool is when they start to think about their actions and act less on impulseChildren’s 1st symbols are imagesThey think in imagesThere is a constraint on their perceptionCentration: to center (verb form)A child centers in their perceptionThey tend to overly focus when they look at thingsThey don’t get the big pictureAffects auditory perceptionVisual perceptionHaptic perception (touch)Too many details and not the big pictureSyncretism: Aggregating and pulling together all the bits and piecesCreates a pre-conceptThe beginning of a symbolic representation of a situationLimited and constrainedChildren tend to randomly pick up informationPre-concept is the first step in the mind creating a conceptPrimitiveAs they get older centration has less of an affect on their perceptions of situationsPre-concepts: illogical, disorganized representations of a child’s experiencesProvide a less than adequate representation of children’s experiencesEstablish a foundation for the eventual emergence of logical concepts in the stage of cognitive developmentThe self pre-concept: wont really be about them in particular but more about what they are wearing or what they look likeLimitationsTransductive reasoning: when a child has a pre-concept and thinks with itLacks logicInduction: derive general principles from particular examplesDeduction: use general principles to predict particular outcomesTransduction: reasoning within the unsystematic collections of image which constitute their pre-conceptsPrivate and meaningful only within a child’s pre-conceptual understanding of the storyEgo centricity: the child’s inability to take someone’s perspective on a problemUnable to see the world through someone else’s eyesNot selfish but they have difficulty seeing the world as others see itThose who deal with preschoolers should not expect them to consistently recognized another individual’s perspectiveIrreversibility: reversing sequences, gets lost easilyPreschoolers cannot mentally reverse their transductive sequences of thoughtExplains why preschoolers have a way of:taking things apart, but not being able to put them back togetherfinding their way to a distant place but not being able to find their way backclimbing to the top but not being able to get downthese limitations all have profound effects on their ability to adapt to their physical and social environmentClassification: refers to the tendency to group objects on the basis of particular sets of characteristicsThree stage developmental progressionStage 1: (5 years and younger) had no overall plan for sorting but produced graphic collections (pictures made with objects)Stage 2: (6-8) sorted in a more organized way, producing a series of collections of objects, each based on a different dimension of similarity – non graphic collectionsStage 3: (later childhood to early adolescence) understood the relationship the rule of class inclusion; cows being a subclass of animalsQuantitative reasoning: refers to the ability to estimate the amount of things and changes in the amounts of things in terms of number, sixe, weight, volume, etc.Failure to conserve: failure to understand amountsCritical point in development of quantitative reasoning: when children become aware that things in nature exist in specific amounts and that those amounts only change when certain actions are carried outFailure to distinguish realityInformation Processing: refers to children’s use of attention and memory to gain and retain information about their environment and dtheir use of that information to solve problemsVery similar to the way a computer worksHas inputs and outputsGive them perception  develops over timeIn the beginning they wait for information to come to themEventually they are looking for information to processMemory SystemsShort term memory: your ability to remember things for 20-30secsSelective to what pieces of information we put into long termPreschool childrendon’t put things into long term memory very oftenTheir selection of information tends to be randomDon’t remember a lot of their daily experienceBut often remember specific eventsFalling downEVENT ORIENTED: events organize their memory more than anything elseFail to apply strategies that will help them to remember informationRecall vs recognizeRecall: able to form answer from memoryRecognize: seeing it on a page and being able to distinguish between right and wrongElaboration strategies: preschoolers don’t do thisOrganization: grouping items by category, such and vehicles and animalsRehearsal: repeating items over and overMetacognition: knowing how much you know an knowing how to improve your knowledgeConceptualize your own cognitive processLong term memory: where very large amounts of information can be maintained indefinitelyDevelopment of Social PlayTypes of social playUnoccupied behavior: not involved in play and doesn’t interact with other children or teachersOnlooker behavior: observes the play of other children with obvious interest but makes no effort to become involvedSolitary play: playing independently with toys that are unlike those plated with by other children. There is no social contact or apparent interest in what other children are doingParallel play: playing next to each other but no interactionThe child play beside other children with toys that are similar to those used by those children. There is no social contact with other children nor any effort to coordinate playAssociative play: some interactionThe child plays with other children, sharing materials and conversing, but there is no consistent theme to the play or division of rolesCooperative play: taking on roles and differentiated those rolesEx: batman and robin, cops and robbersPlays with other children in an organized manner, with roles differentiated to accomplish some goal to act out some agreed upon play themeSocial desire come very early agesRelating to peersSocial preference: favorites, likes, and dislikes for other kids2nd year: unpredictable and unstable3rd year: become more clearsociometric test: measuring social behaviorgroup settingportrait shot of each child in the settingtest separately by genderinterview one at a timeget three positive and three negativesessentially popularity/rejection testStatus groupspopular: a lot of positive votes and no negative


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