New version page

FSU CHD 2220 - Lecture notes

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5 out of 16 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 16 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 16 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 16 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 16 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 16 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Preoperational Stage of Development (Age 2-6) - Early Childhood !CH.!9,!10,!12,!13!!Symbolic!Reasoning!• Babies!act!on!impulses!o Impulsive!peo ple !ma ke !a!lot!of!erro rs!o When!you!take!your!time;!tend!to!make!less!mistakes!• Preschool!is!when!they!start!to!think!about!their!actions!and!act!less!on!impulse!• Children’s!1st!symbols!are!images!o They!think!in!images!o There!is!a!constraint!on!their!perception!§ Centration:!to!center!(verb!form)!ú A!child!centers!in!their!perception!• They!tend!to!overly!focus!when!they!look!at!things!• They!don’t!get!the!big!picture!o Affects!auditory!perception!o Visual!perception!o Haptic!perception!(touch)!• Too!many!details!and!not!the!big!picture!ú Syncretism:!Aggregating!and!pulling!together!all!the!bits!and!pieces!• Creates!a!preOconcept!• The!beginning!of!a!symbolic!representation!of!a!situation!• Limited!and!constrained!• Children!tend!to!randomly!pick!up!information!• PreOconcept!is!the!first!step!in!the!mind!creating!a!concept!o Primitive!ú As!they!get!older!centration!has!less!of!an!affect!on!their!perceptions!of!situations!o PreOconcepts:!illogical,!d is or g an iz e d !rep resenta tions!of!a!child’s!experiences !§ Provide!a!less!than!adequate!representation!of!children’s!experiences!ú Establish!a!foundation!for!the!eventual!emergence!of!logical!concepts!in!the!stage!of!cognitive!develop m ent !§ The!self!preOconcept:!wont!really!be!about!them!in!particular!but!more!about!what!they!are!wearing!or!what!they!look!like!o Limitations!§ Transductive!reasoning:!when!a!child!has!a!preOconcept!and!thinks!with!it!ú Lacks!logic!ú Induction:!derive!g en eral!p rinc iples!from!particular!exam p les!ú Deduction:!use!general!principles!to!predict!particular!outcomes!ú Transduction:!reasoning!within!the!unsystematic!collections!of!image!which!constitute!their!preOconcepts!• Private!and!meaningful!only!within!a !ch ild ’s!p re Oconceptual!understanding!of!the!story!§ Ego!centricity:!the!child’s!inability!to!take!someone’s!perspective!on!a!problem!ú Unable!to!see!the!world!through!someone!else’s!eyes!Not!selfish!but!they!have!difficulty!seeing!the!world!as!others!see!it!Those!who!deal!with!preschoolers!should!not!expect!them!to!consistently!recognized!another!individual’s!perspective!§ Irreversibility:!reversing !seq uen ce s,!gets!lost!ea sily!ú Preschoolers!cannot!mentally!reverse!their!transductive!sequences!of!thought!ú Explains!why!preschoolers!have!a!way!of:!• taking!things!apart,!bu t!not!bein g!able!to!put!them!back!together!• finding!their !w a y!to !a!d ist an t!p la ce !bu t!n o t!b ein g !ab le !to!fin d !their!way!back!!• climbing!to!the!top!but!not!being!able!to!get!down!§ these!limitations!all!have!profo und !effects!on !their!ability!to!a dapt!to!their!physical!and!social!environment!!o Classification:!refers!to!the!tendency!to!group!objects!on!the!basis!of!particular!sets!of!characteristics!§ Three!stage!developmental!progression!ú Stage!1:!(5!years!and!younger)!had!no!overall!plan!for!sorting!but!produced!graphic!collections!(pictures!made!with!objects)!ú Stage!2:!(6O8)!sorted!in!a!more!organized!way,!producing!a!series!of!collections!of!objects,!each!based!on!a!different!dimension!of!similarity!–!non!graphic!collections!ú Stage!3:!(later!childhood!to!early!adolescence)!understood!th e!relationship!the!rule!of!class!inclusion;!cows!being!a!subclass!of!anima ls !§ Quantitative!reasoning:!refers!to!the!ability!to!estimate!the!amount!of!things!and!changes!in!the!amounts!of!things!in!terms!of!number,!sixe,!weight,!volu m e ,!etc.!ú Failure!to!conserve:!failure!to!understand!amounts!!ú Critical!point!in!development!of!quantitative!reasoning:!when!children!become!aware!that!things!in!nature!exist!in!specific!amounts!and!that!those!amounts!on ly!cha nge !wh en!ce rtain!actio ns!are!carried!out!ú Failure!to!distinguish!reality!• Information!P roc essin g:!refers!to !childre n’s!us e!of!atten tion !an d!m emory!to!gain!and!reta in!informat ion !a b o u t!th eir !en v iro n ment!and!dth e ir!u se !of!t ha t !info rmation!to!so lv e!p ro b le m s!o Very!similar!to!the!way!a!computer!works!o Has!inputs!and!outputs!o Give!them!perception!à!develops!over!time!§ In!the!beginnin g!the y!w ait!for!in form a tion !to!com e !to!them!§ Eventually!they!are!looking!for!information!to!process!• Memory!Systems!o Short!term!memory:!your!ability!to!remember!things!for!20O30secs!§ Selective!to!what!pieces!of!inform ation !w e!put!into !long!term!§ Preschool!children!ú !don’t!put!things!into!long!term!memory!very!often!ú Their!selection!of!information!tends!to!be!random!ú Don’t!remember!a!lot!of!their!daily!experience!ú But!often!remember!specific!events!• Falling!down!• EVENT!ORIENTED:!events!organize!their!memory!more!than!anything!else!ú Fail!to!apply!strategies!that!will!help!them!to!remember!information!§ Recall!vs!recognize!ú Recall:!able!to!form!answer!from!memory!ú Recognize:!seeing!it!on!a!page!an d !be in g !ab le !to !dis tin g u ish !b et w e e n!right!and!wrong!§ Elaboration!strategies:!preschoolers!don’t!do!this!§ Organization:!grouping!items!by!category,!such!and!vehicles!and!animals!§ Rehearsal:!repeating!items!over!and!over!§ Metacognition:!knowing!how!much!you!know!an!knowing!how!to!improve!your!knowledge!ú Conceptualize!your!own!cognitive!process!o Long!term!memory:!where!very!large!amounts!of!information!can!be!maintained!indefinitely !o !Social Development – Early Childhood !Development!of!Social!Play!• Types!of!social!play!o Unoccupied!behavior:!not!involved!in!play!and!doesn’t!interact!with!other!children!or!teachers!o Onlooker!behavior:!observes!the!play!of!other!children!with!obvious!interest!but!makes!no!effort!to!become!involved!!o Solitary!play:!playing!independently!with!toys!that!are!!unlike!those!plated!with!by!other!children.!There!is!no!social!contact!or!apparent!interest!in!wha t!o th e r!ch ild re n !ar e!d o in g !o Parallel!play:!playing!next!to!each!other!but!no!interaction!§ The!child!play!beside!other!children!with!toys!that!are!similar!to!those!used!by!those!children.!There!is!no!social!conta ct!w ith!other!ch ildren!n or!any !effort!to!coordinate!play!o


View Full Document
Download Lecture notes
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Lecture notes and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Lecture notes 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?