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FSU CHD 2220 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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CHD2220_Exam3_StudyGuideCh9Piaget refers to the period from 3-6 years of age as the preoperational stage of developmentPiaget (1936/1953) identified the end of the second year of life as a major turning point in cognitive de-velopment, marked by the advent of the symbolic function - the ability to use symbols to represent or stand for perceived objects and events.deferred imitation, children observe the behavior of a model and imitate that behavior after a delay and, insome cases, when the model is no longer present.symbolic or pretend play , children pretend that an object is something other than what it really isEach of the pretend skills follows a unique course of development:--- Shifting Context Two- and three-year-old children typically require support from the play setting to initiate and sustain their pretense.---Substituting Objects Children often substitute one object for another in their pretend play.---Sub-stituting Other Agents for Oneself Researchers have observed a developmental progression in how children use agents in their pretense --Sequencing and Socialization of Pretend Episodes Although pretense begins with single acts, children coordinate such acts into sequences of increasing length and complexity through the preschool yearsmental images , internal representations of external objects or eventsPiaget believed that preschool-age children tend to focus their attention on minute and often inconsequen-tial aspects of their experience, a process he referred to as centration . preconcepts : disorganized, illogical representations of the child's experiences. In induction, we derive general principles from particular examples. For example, an eight-year-old boy who observes that teachers have favored girls in each of his classes, might induce the general princi-ple that girls are teacher's pets. in deduction, we use general principles to predict particular outcomes: The same child could use his general principle to deduce that when he enters his next grade, his new teacher will be likely to favor girlstransduction, reasoning within the unsystematic collections of images which constitute their precon-ceptsegocentrism : child's inability to conceptualize the perspective of other individuals irreversibility - the notion that preschoolers cannot mentally reverse their transductive sequences of thought.limitations affecting children's reasoning:1.Classification refers to the tendency to group objects on the basis of particular sets of characteristics2.Quantitative reasoning refers to the ability to estimate the amount of things and changes in the amounts of things in terms of number, size, weight, volume, speed, time, and distance3.Distinguishing appearance and reality refers to the fact that adults generally sense that appear-ances do not always reflect reality4.theory of mind that they use to explain and predict human behavior.older children are better able than younger children to conceptualize their own cognitive processes - an ability psychologists call metacognition Roger Brown (1973) illustrated how children learn rules in his study of how they use of grammatical morphemes - inflections such as - ing , - ed , and - s which modify nouns, verbs, and adjectives.Communicating with others:1.egocentric speech - language that fails to consider the viewpoint of the listener. 2.monologue: children simply talk to themselves, seemingly oblivious to anyone around them. 3.collective monologue - conversation-like turn-taking between egocentric speakers, with little or no transfer of meaning.private speech - that is, speech with no apparent communicative purpose.children internalize private speech as inner speech - thinking in words and sentencesOne of the leading causes of language delay results from a disorder of the inner ear known as otitus media.Day Careday care- refers to the provision of substitute care out of the family home for parents who cannot or choose not to provide that care by themselves.two forms:1. family day care is provided by a single caregiver for no more than five children in a private home; 2.Center-based care is provided for larger groups of children in a facility designed specifically for that purpose.compensatory preschools - early childhood education programs designed to compensate for risks associated with growing up poor, neglected, or abused.Ch.10personality :a child's unique pattern of relating socially and emotionally to other human beings.social competence - the ability to establish and maintain satisfying social interaction and relation-ships with peers and with adultsSocial play 1.Unoccupied behavior - the child is not involved in play and does not interact with other children orteachers.2.Onlooker behavior - the child observes the play of other children with obvious interest but makes no effort to become involved in any way.3.Solitary play - the child plays independently with toys that are unlike those played with by other chil-dren. There is no social contact or apparent interest in what other children are doing.4.Parallel Play - the child plays beside other children with toys that are similar to those used by those children. There is no social contact with other children nor any effort to coordinate play.5.Associative play - The child plays with other children, sharing materials and conversing, but there isno consistent theme to the play or division of roles.6.Cooperative play - The child plays with other children in an organized manner, with roles differen-tiated to accomplish some goal or to act out some agreed upon play theme.Aspects of children's social relationships: Social Preference, Friendships, Conflicts, Aggression,DominanceParents influence the development of social competence by establishing high-quality interpersonal rela-tionships with their children4 distinct parenting styles:1. Authoritarian parents assert great power over their children, setting strict limits and standards on children's behavior. Rules are set by parental edict, with no room for negotiation or compromise. These parents interpret deviations from the rules as challenges to their authority, frequently responding with moderate to severe punishment.2. Indulgent-permissive parents are very accepting of their children's impulses, avoid setting rules, and assert very little authority over their children's behavior. They defer to their children's inclina-tions with respect to time schedules (bedtime, mealtime) and avoid making demands for compliance.3.


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