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FSU CHD 2220 - CHD FINAL EXAM

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CHD FINAL EXAMChapter 9: Cognitive/Language Development In Early Childhood Piaget’s Preoperational Stage of Developmento Period from 3-6 years o “Operational”= logical systems of thought in middle childhood  Ex. All dogs are animals but not all animals are dogso “Preoperational”= incapable of advanced forms of reasoning The Symbolic Functiono Piaget says end of 2nd year major turning point in development o Deferred imitation, pretend play, mental images, language- Deferred imitation: child observe behavior and imitate it at a later time when the model is no longer present. The child maintains modeled behavior in symbolic form over relatively long periods of time, imitating the behavior only when it becomes adaptive to do so.- Symbolic/Pretend play: children pretend an object is something other than what it really is  Distinct cognitive skills required to sustain pretend play - Shifting context: Two- and three-year-old children typically require support from the play setting to initiate and sustain their pretense. A toddler, for example, is more likely to pretend to eat in a setting such as a kitchen than in the back yard. In contrast, older children are capable ofshifting context, performing routine behaviors outside of their typical setting. Performing routine behaviors outside of their particular setting - Substituting objects: children substitute one object for another ex. Using a stick for a fork during play o 14-19 months: act out pretense on realistic dolls will little use of unrealistic or ambiguous substitute objects such as blocks or stickso 3rd year: realistic prop use; children able to transform any object into needed propso 3-4 years: incorporation of imaginary guests; use of props fades by 4th year- Substituting other agents for oneself: how children use agents in their pretense o Early in 2nd year toddlers are the agents of their own acts of pretense, child may pretend to feed herself by bringing empty spoon to mouth or pretend to go to sleep by putting her head downo Later in 2nd year, child may use dolls in pretend play, but only as passive agentso By 3rd year, use dolls as active agents with their own behaviors (ex. Doll has its own personality and “can do thinks on its own”)- Sequencing and socialization of pretend episodes: children coordinate acts into sequences of increasing length and complexity through the preschool years.o Ex. 2 year old combing hair may turn to a 4 year old grooming sequence (washing, combing, dressing, putting on makeup) o Incorporates behavior patterns for agents which reflect conventional roles (police catch bad guys, but do not clean)o Symbolic function also expressed in ability to form mental images, internal representations of the outside world. o Mental images free children from the here and now, enabling them to think about objects when the objects are not physically present, and to think about events before, during, and after their occurrence. o For the first time, the child can integrate experiences from the past into the present to plan for the future o Deferred imitation, pretend play, and mental images express private, idiosyncratic meanings derived from personal experience The private and idiosyncratic nature of the symbolic function in young childrenlimits their ability to communicate their thoughts to others, challenging caregivers' interpretive skills and patience. The Advent of Preconceptso Piaget believed preschool-age children focus their attention on minute and inconsequential aspects of their experience, known as centration  Centers perception on a few or 1 aspect of a situation instead of the situation as a whole  3 year old may remember nothing about babysitter except her big earrings Results in unsystematic sampling of isolated bits of info from any given experience  Collections of images derived from centrated perception merge into preconcepts: disorganized, illogical representations of child’s experiences - Less than adequate but establish foundation for emergence of logical conceptso When kids enter a unique experience, the brain aggregates things together= synchrotism  Transductive Reasoning: Thinking With Preconceptso In induction, general principles are derived from particular examples/ideas Ex. An 8 year old boy who observes that a teacher favors girls in his class may induce the general principle that girls are teacher’s petso In deduction, general principles are used to predict particular outcomes Ex. The same child above could use his general principle to deduce that whenhe enters his next grade, his new teacher will be likely to favor girlso Piaget says preoperational children are incapable of thinking inductively. Instead they think by transduction, reasoning within the unsystematic collections of images which constitute their preconcepts- private and meaningful only within her preconceptual understanding of the story  Lashonda believed that Little Red Riding Hood took the fine red hat from the wolf because he had been "so bad." Her logic is transductive: private and meaningful only within her preconceptual understanding of the story Egocentrism: one of the major limitation in preoperational thought is the child’s inability toconceptualize the perspective of other individuals (3 mountain experiment with kids)o does not mean children are selfish, merely that they have trouble seeing the world as others see it Irreversibility: second limitation of preoperational thought, notion that preschoolers cannot mentally reverse their transductive sequence of thought o Ex. Girl can tell you how she walked to school, but has trouble retracing her stepso Ex. Ask a 3 year old girl- do you have a sister? “Yes” does your sister have a sister? “No”o Ex. Getting lost easilyo Can be a significant liability in problem solving during this period- why preschoolershave a way of taking things apart, but not being able to put them back together Preoperational Stage kids CANNOT: o Classification; class inclusion Tendency to group objects based on similarities  Adult classification systems organized on basis of class inclusion, a class must be smaller than any more inclusive class in which it is contained- Ex. Adults know that all dogs are animals, but not all animals are dogs Piaget’s 3 stage developmental progression:- Stage 1- children 5 and youngero No overall sorting plano Graphic collections, pictures made with objectso Child might


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