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Sports and Physical Education in Modern America Part II Sport at the College Level Intercollegiate contests Variety of sports Student initiated Violence 1895 beginnings of the NCAA Football A Game for College Men Sports at universities were initially extracurricular Faculty members didn t want anything to do with sports so the students had all the control over it and ran it with what governance they had The 1st intercollegiate event was a rowing event in 1852 between Harvard and Yale wrestling o The railroad was the first intercollegiate sponsor of this event It was a sponsor by bringing the teams to the location of the match Baseball Amherst played Williams College in 1859 Other early college sports included boxing golf tennis track and field and The first college teams were campus clubs There were no teams that were officially sponsored by the universities Football originated in the colleges as opposed to baseball which originated in adult recreation 1st ever football game Princeton vs Rutgers 1869 o More like soccer rugby than today s football o Large teams emphasis on kicking 25 people per offensive defensive team teams scored 1 point for every ball kicked between the field goal posts o Private colleges in New England and two men change the game Walter Camp Father of American Football a player at Yale who eventually coached He is recognized as the Father of American Football because he had very valuable innovations and rule changes that altered the game o Some of his ideas included 11 players on a team Line of scrimmage Yards and downs Marking the field Selecting All American team He proposed that the team whose ball went out of bounds put it back in play by giving it the quarterback on the line of scrimmage A team had 3 tries to move the ball 5 yards or else they lost possession The Popularity and Problems of College Football Play in first 20 years localized in private New England colleges Harvard vs Yale first big rivalry o Harvard and Yale played each other in 1876 o So many injuries in the game it became known as the Hampton Yard Blood Bath o Harvard and Yale became the first dynasties they had a much better rate of winning than other teams Violent game with many injuries Despite its violence football spread because it was a great spectator sport o Popular lots of spectators o Whenever fans get involved there is legitimacy to the sport o Many people came on to campus the day of the football games and colleges didn t know how to handle the influx of visitors o The popularity of football caused universities to change the way they handled college athletics Coaches were hired as faculty members and coached the teams Colleges needed to develop an administrative department to handle equipment needs funding etc o Few rules about who could play coach With the rise of football popularity a league developed to manage football o Faculty committees formed to oversee athletics Property damage gambling injuries and control o League of IV the first college athletic conference Harvard Yale Columbia and Princeton met in 1876 o Other conferences ensued The Big Ten 1894 o Rules put into play to govern college athletics No college team could play professional teams Faculty controlled athletics as opposed to an alumni group or individual Player eligibility players had 4 years to play Football Spreads and Addresses Violence By late 1800s football spread throughout the US o Michigan Illinois Chicago California Texas A M LSU Tulane Ole Miss HBCUs Rose Bowl 1902 the first bowl game in which the winner from the Big 10 and the Pack 10 would play each other for a national championship o Takes place in Pasadena California Came about when they wanted a football game to accompany their rose parade o Michigan beat Stanford 49 0 o The city wasn t expecting the amount of spectators who came out for the event so they abandoned the game until 1916 o More bowl games arose after the Rose Bowl President Theodore Roosevelt president at the time of football s spread He had a son who played the sport Because of the widespread problems in football injuries gambling eligibility recruiting etc Roosevelt intervened in 1906 and called a meting of the football schools he urged them to make changes to the game Mainly eastern schools were in attendance because they played it the longest This was the first time the president government was becoming involved in sports o Meeting of universities with football 1906 o 60 colleges meet and form Intercollegiate Athletic Association The name was later changed to the NCAA in 1910 Football Rules committee s Solution to Reduce Injuries Even though colleges had rules they needed to address the game itself to fix the number of injuries 1906 meeting Forward Pass the ball could be thrown away from the pile people would be spread out to reduce the number of injuries o The football was much fatter at the time which made it hard to throw o Rules made it a high risk play o However throwing the ball was looked down upon because football was considered a rough violent sport and throwing it wasn t tough Amos Alonzo Stagg attended Yale and studied religion with the intent of becoming a minister While at Yale he excelled in football and baseball He worked as a coach at the YMCA training school in Springfield MA The University of Chicago recruited him to become their coach He built the university a winning program o Recognized as an innovator of the game of football He introduced the tackling dummies to training He set up scrimmage games to get his team ready for the season He had an athletic dorm on campus He devised offensive strategies including the man in motion He created hidden ball plays where a player would hide the ball under his jersey o He was an excellent recruiter At the time recruiting was frowned upon Amos began a national track and field meet at the University of Chicago so that he could see some of the best talent run in the meet He took some of those winning track athletes and recruited them for his football program Tennis English referred to it as real tennis or court tennis brought it outdoors French called it tenez and played indoors changed the court dimensions o Major Wingfield credited with moving the game outdoors onto the grass As a result some people referred to it as lawn tennis Wimbledon is played on grass today Eventually Mary Outerbridge brought the sport to America in 1874 Mary Outerbridge a New York socialite She was vacationing in Bermuda an English colony

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LSU KIN 2501 - Sports and Physical Education in Modern America, Part II

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