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Kin 2501 Test 3Sport at the College Level- Intercollegiate contestso First was a rowing contest in 1852- Variety of sports- Student initiated- Violence- 1895 - Beginnings of the NCAAFootball: A Game for College Men- 1st ever football game: Princeton vs. Rutgers (1869)- More like soccer/rugby than today’s FB- Large teams, emphasis on kicking- Private colleges in New England and two men change the game- Walter Camp (Father of American Football)o Player and coach at Yale- 11 players on a team- Line of scrimmage, yards and downs, marking the field- Selecting All American team- Football originated in the colleges as opposed to baseball which orientated at the adult professional level- Helmets were made of leatherThe Popularity and Problems of College Football- Play in first 20 years localized in private New England colleges- Harvard vs. Yale first big rivalry (1876)o Hampton Yard bloodbath- Violent game with many injuries- Popular: lots of spectators- Few rules about who could play/coach- Is this (large-scale spectator athletics) something colleges wanted?- Is football too violent?- Hired coaches and teachers, athletic director, started to help manage what happenedFootball drives college sports to organize1. Faculty committees formed to oversee athleticsproperty damage injuriesgambling control2. League of IV (1st college athletic conference)o Other “conferences”3. Rules put into play to govern college athleticso university/faculty controlo eligibility to play/coacho academic standards to playFootball Spreads and Addresses Violence- By late 1800s, FB spread throughout the USo Michigan, Illinois, Chicago, California, Texas A&M, LSU, Tulane, Ole Miss, HBCUs- First bowl game: Rose Bowl (1902)o Michigan vs. Stanfordo Didn’t play another Rose Bowl until 1916- President Theodore Roosevelt- Meeting of universities with FB (1906)- Wanted to ban football- Urged to just make changes- First time a president invited a sports group to white house- 60 colleges meet (1910), form Intercollegiate Athletic Assoc (NCAA)Football Rules Committee’s Solution to Reduce Injuries- 1906 meeting- Amos Alonzo Stagg- Forward pass, ball would be thrown away from pile which would result in fewer injuries- However, passing was not used much. Why?o “fat” football (hard to throw)o Rules made it a “high risk” playTennis - Mary Outerbridge: New York socialite that was vacationing in Bermuda, observed British officersplaying the game. Introduced it to statan island - James Dwight: while visiting in Europe saw the game, made a court at his home. Produced first tennis tournament. “Father of American Tennis”- French called it “tenez” and played indoors- English referred to it as “real tennis” or “court tennis” – brought it outdoors, changed the court dimensions- Eventually Mary Outerbridge brought the sport to America in 1874- NOLA tennis club first tennis club in US- Dwight Davis: Harvard tennis player, organized competition between America and England. Called the Davis CupBeginning of Modern Olympics- 1896 – 1st modern Olympics- 1st marathon- Jim Thorpe – Wa-Tho-Huk translated to “bright path”Physical activity programs in the schools- By 1900 public institutions for boys and girls were established- German immigrants>Turnverein>Jahn- Charles Follen - Harvard>first gym- Charles Beck - Round Hill school- Francis Lieber - Boston Gymnasium & first swimming poolThe Beginnings of Sport and Fitness in the US(1) German Immigrants take the Lead- The start of school Physical Educationo Round Hill School, Northampton, MA, 1823o Fitness-based rationaleo Charles Beck (hired to teach Latin & gymnastics) Translated German exercise books into English- The emergence of “Turner Societies”o German immigrants in Mass and NY bring gymnastics/volksturnen to the US, form exercise groups- Gymnastics in colleges and public gymnasiumso Charles Follen Follower of Jahn and friend of Becko Hired to teach German at Harvardo Opens turnplatz there, introduces German Gymnastics to Harvard studentso Boston opens first public gymnasium in US, hires Follen to run itThe Beginnings of Sport and Fitness in the U.S.(2) Muscular Christianity emerges as first “fitness rationale”- Catharine Beechero Teacher at colleges for women (female seminaries)o First directed to exercise because doctor said it’d be good for her healtho Teaches her students calisthenicso Promotes exercise for womeno Connects exercise to religious responsibilityo Women’s skirt and outfits in general complicated physical activityo Negative implication that physical activity would have on a women’s infertilityo Women were allowed to play tennis, crochet, and archery- YMCAo YMCAs open in citieso Appeal to youth through sport and exerciseo Mind – body – spirit motto o Through exercise and sport, youth can learn values, and hear the Christian wordThe Beginnings of Sport and Fitness in the USPhysicians lead college PE programs- School-based PE and YMCA programs create PE/fitness careers- Dio Lewis (homeopathic physician)o Public speaker, fitness promoter, exercise leadero Exercise classes using beanbags, dumbbells, calisthenicso 1861: Opens “Boston Normal Institute for PE” (Boston) preparation of PE teachers- Amherst College (MA)o Department of Hygiene and Physical Educationo Edward Hitchcock, MD as first faculty member Studied effects of exercise by taking body measurementsBattle of the System- Dioclesian Lewis - new gymnastics (floor exercises)- German system - Jahn- Swedish system - Pehr Ling (massage)- Edward Hitchcock - Amherst College- Dudley Sargent - Harvard- Hemenway gymnasium (individualized)- Luther Gulick - Muscular Christianity (YMCA)The American System- Economic, technological and sociological events- More things were being built- The quest for the good life, more leisure time- Civil rights > human rights- During times of war, physical exercise was considered very important- Required physical education- Community sports program- President Theodore Roosevelto Established national parks system- Pragmatism - play was a part of the democratic process- “New” physical education - stressed the whole individual rather then just a healthy body- Teacher training programs- Research in the fieldA Changing Society- Factors affecting the American systemo Conflicting philosophieso Societal changes- Purpose of physical education/activityo Train and develop the bodyo Develop the whole persono Education for leisureRacial

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LSU KIN 2501 - Test 3

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