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Midterm 2 - SAMPLE TESTName___________________________________MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.1)Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs within a metabolic pathway where sufficient energy isreleased by a given chemical reaction to drive the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate. Inwhich of the following metabolic pathways is substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited?A)during oxidative phosphorylationB)in glycolysisC)in both glycolysis and the Krebs cycleD)in the Krebs cycle1)2)Based on what you know about the structure and function of the antenna complex, irradiating aleaf with which of the following light types would result in the release of the greatest quantitiesof oxygen?A)red and blue lightB)green and blue lightC)violet and red lightD)red and orange light2)3)Flagella are found in both eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. Despite the functionalsimilarities of all flagella, scientists suspect that eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella have evolvedindependently. Why don't they think there is a common evolutionary origin for prokaryotic andeukaryotic flagella?A)Prokaryotic flagella do not protrude outside the cell wall, whereas eukaryotic flagella aremembrane-bound extensions of cytoplasm.B)Prokaryotic flagella are an adaptation to scarce nutrient supplies, whereas eukaryoticflagella are designed to protect.C)Eukaryotic flagella undergo an undulating motion and are covered by a plasmamembrane; prokaryotic flagella move by rotating and lack a plasma membrane.D)Prokaryotic flagella do not require energy in the form of ATP as eukaryotic flagella do.3)4)Nerve cells lose their ability to undergo mitosis. Instead, they are permanently stuck in _____.A)G0B)S of interphaseC)G2D)metaphase4)5)For cells to divide more rapidly, increased production would likely be required of each of thefollowing proteins except _____.A)cyclinsB)PDGFC)p53D)activated MPF5)6)You place yeast cells in a glucose solution and plot the rate of glucose uptake. You see anincrease in glucose uptake over time (that is, the longer the yeast are in the sugar solution, thefaster they can take sugar into the cell). The most likely explanation for this is the cell membraneis becoming more permeable because _____.A)the yeast is inserting more cholesterol into the membraneB)the difference in glucose concentration between the inside of the cell and outside of thecell is decreasingC)the difference in glucose concentration between the inside of the cell and outside of thecell is increasingD)the yeast is inserting more glucose protein transporters into its membrane6)17)What is the main purpose of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?A)to produce NADPH for use in respirationB)to produce NADPH and ATPC)to use ATP to make glucoseD)to generate oxygen by "splitting" H2O7)8)The proteins of the electron transport chain active in the light-dependent reactions _____.A)are considered to be part of the reaction center of photosystem IB)are free proteins present in the thylakoid lumenC)are membrane proteins present in the thylakoidD)absorb the same wavelengths of light as their associated chlorophylls8)9)Integral membrane proteins stay in membranes because of _____.A)osmotic pressure from proteins outside the cellB)the locations of their polar and nonpolar amino acidsC)diffusion of proteins from the cytoplasm to the membraneD)their small size, which does not allow them to pass through the membrane9)10)Oxidative phosphorylation (the electron transport chain) is carried out during:A)glycolysis.B)aerobic respiration.C)alcoholic fermentationD)lactate fermentation.10)11)Purple photosynthetic bacteria do not contain chloroplasts. They have an antenna system thatincludes two light-harvesting protein complexes, both of which are integral membrane proteins.The bacteriochlorophyll a molecules contain Mg2+ and absorb light at 800 nm. Which of thefollowing statements comparing photosynthesis in purple bacteria and plant chloroplasts istrue?A)Because purple bacteria do not have chloroplasts, there is no electron transport associatedwith photosynthesis.B)Bacteriochlorophyll a absorbs light most efficiently in the ultraviolet range, at asignificantly shorter wavelength than that for chlorophyll a of chloroplasts.C)Bacteriochlorophyll a is a molecule containing Mg2+, whereas chlorophyll a fromchloroplasts contains Fe2+.D)Plant chlorophyll a absorbs in the visible light range, whereas purple photosyntheticbacteriochlorophyll a absorbs light at a longer wavelength.11)12)Steroid hormones bind to receptors inside the cell and alter their conformation. Thehormone-receptor complex is then transported into the nucleus, where it can directly affect geneexpression. To get from the location where the receptor binds the hormone to its site of action,the hormone-receptor complex must _____.A)enter the smooth endoplasmic reticulumB)be transported through the nuclear pore complexC)become water soluble by binding to a carrier moleculeD)undergo another conformational change12)213)Some cells have several nuclei per cell. How could such multinucleated cells be explained?A)The cell underwent repeated cytokinesis but no mitosis.B)The cell underwent repeated mitosis with simultaneous cytokinesis.C)The cell had multiple S phases before it entered mitosis.D)The cell underwent repeated mitosis, but cytokinesis did not occur.13)14)Scientists isolate cells in various phases of the cell cycle. They find a group of cells that have 1½times more DNA than do G1 phase cells. The cells of this group are _____.A)in the M phase of the cell cycleB)in the G2 phase of the cell cycleC)between the G1 and S phases in the cell cycleD)in the S phase of the cell cycle14)15)What can you infer about a high molecular weight protein that cannot be transported into thenucleus?A)It lacks a nuclear localization signal (NLS).B)It contains errors in its amino acid sequence.C)It lacks a signal sequence.D)It is too large.15)16)The text states that ribonucleotides can diffuse through some types of liposomes. It's likely thatthe lipids present early in chemical evolution had short chains. Would liposomes formed fromthese types of lipids be more or less permeable to ribonucleotides than if early cells formed fromlong-chained lipids?A)same permeabilityB)more permeableC)less permeable16)17)A gap junction is a channel that connects adjacent cells. From substances listed, which onecannot pass through a gap junction?A)amino

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