Unformatted text preview:

PSYCH FINAL EXAM NOTESINTRO TO PSYCHOLOGYAffectBehaviorCognitionHistory of PsychologyPhilosophy and Natural SciencesIndia – Buddha- How do sensations and perceptions combine to form ideas?China – Confucius- Stressed the power of ideas and importance of an educated mindHebrew Scriptures- Linked mind and emotion to the bodySocrates and Plato- Contemplated mind/body connection- Mind separate from the body- Mind exists after death- Ideas were innateo Born with itAristotle- Soul (mind) not separate from body- Knowledge grows from experienceRene Descartes- Believed in mind/body separation- Wondered how mind and body communicatedFrancis Bacon- Founder of the experimental method- Founder of modern scienceJohn Locke- Mind = tabula rasa (blank slate) at birth and experiences ‘wrote’ on itEmpiricism- Based on observation and experimentationStructuralism- Wilhelm Wundt (1879)- Titchener (late 1800s)- “introspection” look insideFunctionalism- William James (1875)o Harvard- You couldn’t study consciousness- Focused on how minds allow us to function- How and why of behaviorGestalt- Wertheimer- Method of therapy- “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”Psychoanalysis- Freud – Early 1900s- Symptoms had mental, not physical causes- Influence of:o Unconsciouso Early ExperienceBehaviorism- Ivan Pavlovo Classical conditioning- John B. Watsono ‘science of behavior’- B.F. Skinnero Operant conditioning; ‘radical’ behaviorismContemporary Psychology- The scientific study of behavior and mental processesCurrent PerspectivesPsychodynamic- Rooted in Freud’s theory- Unconscious processes- Early experience- “neo-Freudians”Behavioral- Pavlov, Watson, Skinner- Learning theoryHumanistic- Carl Rogers – 1951o ‘person-centered’- Abe Maslow – 1970o ‘self-actualization’o “necessary but not sufficient”Cognitive Psychology- Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)o Scientific exploration of memory and other cognitive processes- Thinking, problem solving, memory- Cognitive neuroscienceo Study brain and nervous systemSocioCultural- Social psychology- Cultural psychology- Interwoven into other theories- How person acts in social situationsBiopsychological- Genetics- Hormones- Nervous systemEvolutionary- Shared universal human characteristics- Natural selection focus- Prepared fearso Humans automatically afraid of thingsTypes of Psychological Professionals1. Psychologist2. Psychiatrist (MD)3. Psychiatric Social Worker4. PsychoanalystRESEARCHThe Need for Psychological Science- Intuitiono Humans rely on it- Common Sense- Empirical evidenceHindsight bias- “I knew it all along”Overconfidence- Sometimes we think we know more than we actually doThe scientific attitudeCuriosity- Passion for explorationSkepticism- Doubting and questioningHumility- Ability to accept responsibility when wrongCritical thinking- Examine the argument- Question- Identify and evaluate assumptionso Basis for conclusions?o Quality of research/info gathering?- Consider alternate arguments- Avoid emotional reasoningo Authority/expertise, bias- Don’t oversimplify- Tolerate uncertainty- Be open mindedScientific Method- Psychological research uses the scientific method to construct theoriesTheory- A general explanation of a set of observations or facts- Attempts to explain and predict behavior or eventsHypothesis- A testable prediction- Often prompted by a theory- Enables us to accept, reject, or revise the theoryCycle of scientific research- Perceive question form hypothesistestdraw conclusionsreport results/replicationResearch design- Descriptive- Correlational- ExperimentsVariable- Characteristic that can be measuredOperational definition- Identification of procedure or steps used to measure or control a research variableDescriptive methods- Naturalistic observationo Watching and recording behavior in organism’s natural environment- Laboratory observationo Subjects in lab settingo Controlo Artificial- Case studyo In depth study of a single individual- Surveyo Ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of peopleo Identify the populationo Select a representativeo Sample from the populationo Social desirabilityo Accuracy of memoriesCorrelation- Examines relation between variables- Positiveo As one variable increases so does the othero As one variable decreases so does the other- Negativeo As one variable increases, the other decreases- Correlation does not prove causation!!!!!!Experimentation- Enables isolation of cause and effect- Manipulate factors that interest us- Keep other factors under controlIndependent variable- A factor manipulated by the experimenter- The effect of the I.V. is the focus of the studyDependent variable- A factor that may change in response to the I.V.Experimental condition- Subjects receive treatment (IV)Control condition- Subjects do not receive treatmentRandom assignment- Assign subjects to groups by chance- Minimizes existing differencesExperimental effect- Subject’s response is influenced by experimenter’s behaviorSingle blind procedure- Participants don’t know if they are in experimental or control groupDouble blind procedure- Participants and experimenter don’t know who receives variable and who doesn’tPlacebo effect- Change due to belief that one is receiving treatmentStatistics- Help to:o Organizeo Summarizeo Make inferencesFrequency distributions- Histogram (bar graph)- Polygon (line graph)Mode- Most frequently occurring score in a distributionMedian- The middle score in a rank-ordered distributionMean- Arithmetic average of scoresVariability- Rangeo The difference between highest and lowest score in a distribution- Standard deviationo A measure of how much scores vary around the meanInferential statistics- Probability theory regarding ‘chance’ vs. ‘true’ differences- Infer from those studied to larger groups- Can results be generalized?Generalizing from samples- Representative samples- Less variable observations- More casesStatistical significance- Difference observed probably not due to chance variation between groupsResearch ethics- Informed consent- Risk- Deception- Debriefing- ConfidentialityNERVOUS SYSTEM AND BRAINPhrenology- Franz Gall 1800o Attempt to explain how the brain worksNeuroscience- Study of neural structures, behavior and learningNervous system- Central and peripheral nervous systemCentral nervous system- Brain - Spinal cordo ReflexesMotor neurons- Carry outgoing information from CNS to

View Full Document


Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view PSYCH FINAL EXAM NOTES and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view PSYCH FINAL EXAM NOTES 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?