TAMU ENTO 208 - Final Exam Study Guide (21 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Ticks, Kissing Bugs, Mites, Control Includes in class lectures and online lectures, as well as practice questions

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Ento 208 - Veterinary Entomology
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ENTO 208 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 18 21 Also contains the online lectures Lecture Main Points Practice questions Lecture 18 Ticks Intro I Phylogeny a Ixodida order suborder i Families Ixodidae hard ticks Argasidae soft ticks Nuttalliellidae African ticks II Importance a All ticks are parasites b Greatest variety of disease transimittance among arthropods c Second most important animal human health vector III Anatomy main parts for Tick ID a Male vs Female for soft ticks i Scutum covers upper half of dorsal side for females covers entire dorsal side for males IV Genera a Ixodes i Lyme disease vector ii Largest tick genus species b Dermacentor i Short palps Scutum ornamented c Amblyomma i Long palps ii Scutum ornamented lone star tick has a white dot on dorsal side d Otobius i Single host tick ii Adults leave host don t feed just mate and lay eggs iii Not known to transmit disease there are soft ticks known to do so V Tick life stages a Larvae 6 legs b Nymph 8 legs highest risk of human infection host seek in late spring summer c Adult host seek in fall as well Tick must be attatched for 48 hours to transmit agent Lecture 19 Tick borne diseases Tick behavior Host seeking passive ambush active hunters Questing behavior ixodes scapularis Hunting lone star Tick Ecology Varying degrees of host specificity Host utilization depends on availability Nidicolous ticks live in nests or other shelters used by the hosts Non nidicolus Dispersed throughout landscape attacking passing hosts Direct impact Dermatitis Alopecia Exsanguination Tick toxicosis Tick paralysis Allergies Lyme disease Agent Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete 1 reported vector borne disease in US Vectored by Black legged tick ixodes scapularis carried by white footed mouse In humans early stage bulls eye rash flu like symptoms Late stage several months later cardiac neurologic arthritic abnormalities Rocky Mountain spotted fever Agent rickettsia rickettsii Vectored by Dermacentor variablis Babesiosis Agent babesia spp protozoa Vectored by in US Ixodes scapularis Human babesiosis Babesia microt emerging disease malaria like symptoms Cattle babesiosis B bovis or B bigemina affect the central nervous system Cattle tick fever Cattle tick most important tick of livestock in the world has been confined to Mexico short mouth parts Lecture 20 Tick borne diseases continued Equine Piroplasmosis o Agent Thelieria equi Babesia caballi o Vectored by Dermacentor variablilis Amblyomma cajennense Rhipicephalus microplus o Symptoms fever reduced aappetite anemia o chronic lifetime infection w T equi B caballi is cleared by the immune system o King Ranch Texas out break Relapsing Fever o Agent Borrelia turnicatae spirochete o Hosts humans o Vectored by Argasidae African Swine Fever o Agent icosahedral DNA virus Family Iridoviridae o Host Domestic feral pigs european wild boar and warthogs o Vectored by Ornithodors spp Ehrilichiosis rickettsia o Human type Agent Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E ewingii Vectored by lonestar tick o Canine type Agent Ehrlichia canis Vectored by Rhipicephalus sanguines Anaplasmosis granulocytic anaplasmosis o Agent anaplasma phagocytophilum humans dogs cats horses A marginale cattle A centrale cattle A ovis sheep o Vectored by Ixodes spp Tabinae mechanical transmission D andersoni D occidentalis D variabilis Tick Tick borne disease control Personal protection Environmental Reduction Habitat modificatoin Host Removal Rotational grazing reduce population density per paddock Acaricides pesticides to kill ticks and mites Pyrethroids is the safest and most effective Passive treatment of wildlife Treatment of livestock Host Removal Lecture 21 Kissing Bugs Order Hemiptera Suborder Heteroptera Family Reduviidae 13 genera in the western hemisphere All stages are obligate hematophagous 5 nymph immature stages winged adults Attracted by CO2 heat light Houses have all of these They are dark brown black with stripes thin legs a cone nose and thin rostrum mouth part Where Can be found across the country mainly the southern half Local hosts sylvatic opossums rats bats anything really peridomestic dogs chickens rabbits domestic in houses some have lost the ability to live outside Chagas disease In Texas found in dogs Life cycle of agent deposited on skin by bug s feces rubbed into bite wound by host enters body and travels to heart Sterocorial transmission some people think that the cases are fewer in the US because the bugs here wait to poop till they are off the host not proven Diagnosing Chagas disease antibody detection microscopic detection of parasite culture detection of parasite DNA Online Camtasia Lectures Mites Taxonomy Subclass Acari ticks and mites Superorders Acactinotrichida Actinotrichida About 250 species are recognized as causing health related problems Morphology Ticks vs Mites Ticks Mites Size Larger macroscopic Smaller microscopic Exoskeleton Leathery harder to squish Membranous Hypostome Contain teeth obligate blood feeders all No teeth stages Parasites Always Sometimes some live in the soil some are only parasitic certain stages Lifecycle Pre larval are non feeding Larva have six legs hematophagous like ticks Protonymph Deutonymph is non feeding and is a transportation stage Tritonymph Adult Mite Problems Direct Indirect 90 of humans have follicle mites demodex mites Can lead to Skin irritation possibly mange Dermatitis Allergies dust mites allergic reactions Transmission of pathogens Intermediate hosts for helminthes ex cestodes and a filarial nematode Delusory acariosis psychological condition false belief that mites are present Direct Problems Dermatitis and Allergies Penetrate skin dermatitis Inhaled respiratory tract infections digestive system infections Dust Mites Feed on fungi found commonly in areas of high humidity Large problem for health respiratory allergies Chiggers Larvae of the Trombiculidae family mites Only parasitic stage of mites variety of hosts Feed on skin cells do not burrow into skin Eggs are laid in soil larvae feed in soil for several days drop off to molt Nymphs and adults are free living Sarcoptes scabiei Agent of mange scabies Female burrows into skin male follows to mate female continues to burrow Indirect Problems Mite borne disease Tsutsugamushi disease scrub typhis Agent rickettsia Orienta tsutsugamushi Vector chiggers Rickettsialpox Agent bacteria Reservoir Mice Mites of Veterinary Importance Northern Fowl Mite Ornithonyssus sylvarium Most common ecto parasite of

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