UT Knoxville PSYC 360 - Final Exam Study Guide (7 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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PSCY 360 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 17 25 Lecture 17 October 30 Beauty What influences our idea of beauty Define misattribution arousal Is beauty in the eye of the beholder What are the evolutionary factors of beauty Culture influences our idea of beauty Some cultures bind young girls necks with rings to elongate the neck Examples of beauty manipulations in Western Society o Tanning o Botox o Steroids These are all considered private conformity because we do them thinking it s the right thing to do based on society Time periods influence our idea our beauty Compare super models of the past to today o Marilyn Monroe compared to Kierra Knightly Situations influence our idea of beauty This concept is known as situational malleability The study of men where one condition was shown pictures of their wives after seeing a pornographic image then rated their wives attractiveness low and the other condition was shown pictures of their wives without seeing any other image prior rated their wives attractiveness high displays this concept The study where men had to walk across a rickety bridge and was either approached immediately by a female and received her number before leaving or were not approached immediately but still got the woman s number Those that were approached immediately were more like to call the woman than those that weren t approached immediately o Misattribution arousal attributing arousal to something that didn t cause it Ex The men calling the woman back thinking they had a connection with her based on their high arousal that came from walking across the scary bridge Based on social psychology studies Beauty is in the eye of the beholder Attractiveness is inherent Evolutionary factors for beauty Attractive people procreate and their genes end up in the gene pool Seek mates with good genes Subtle patterns among women o Women s preferences for things like symmetry will vary over a particular time span within a month due to the ovulation cycle o During the latter half of follicular phase conception likelihood is high and low in luteal phase o Women prefer symmetry in men during the highest likelihood of conception Lecture 18 November 4 Close Relationships Why do we form pair bonds Our closest relative baboon does not form pair bonds Adaptive workaround adaptation that circumvents pre existing maladaptive features Humans are born too early we know this because when a baby is born the skull has a soft spot where it is not completely formed The soft spot allows the baby s head to fit in the birth canal because our heads are too big The adaptive problem is our big head and the adaptive workaround is the soft spot Other animals are able to walk hours after birth ex Horses Other adaptive workarounds for humans o Problem extended immaturity Workaround Mother s love for child Human mothers take care of their children for a lifetime unlike other animals o Problem mother s incapacitation Workaround Father s love for child mother It s our genes to love Selfish Gene Lecture 19 November 6 Helping Is it human nature to be more helpful or aggressive What happened to Kitty G Determine the steps of helping What social and non social roadblocks can interfere with helping Define bystander phenomenon and pluralistic ignorance In general people tend to be more helpful than aggressive Kitty was stabbed numerous times in New York under a street light while plenty of people heard her screams but no one stopped to call the police Someone yelled at her attacker who fled Kitty managed to make it inside a building where the attacker returned to stab her 8 more times and killed her No one ever called the police Steps of helping 0 Event Takes Place Emergency happens 1 Notice the event 2 Interpret it as an emergency 3 Take Charge 4 Decide how to help 5 HELP Roadblocks Non social o Distraction Social o Distracted by other bystanders o Pluralistic Ignorance o Diffusion of Responsibility Pluralistic Ignorance assuming nothing is wrong because others appear unconcerned Bystander Phenomenon The tendency to be less likely to help when other bystanders are around Lecture 20 November 11 Benefits and Costs of Helping What roadblocks occur where in the steps of helping What are the costs and benefits of helping Define audience inhibition What are the high and low roads to helping 0 Event Occurs Distraction 1 Notice Pluralistic Ignorance 2 Interpret as an emergency Diffusion of Responsibility 3 Take charge 4 Decide how to help Cost Benefit Analysis Audience inhibition 5 HELP Social Benefits of helping Avoiding guilt Social Costs of helping Alters our own priorities put myself at risk financial Non social Benefits Pride Reputation Credit Reciprocation Non social Costs Embarrassment of overacting People are more likely to help when they aren t running late Low Road to helping Other s suffering cost benefit analysis if benefits outweigh costs Help High Road to helping Other s suffering Just helping because we empathize Lecture 21 November 13 Aggression What are the key elements of aggression Name and define three theories of aggression Explain Jane Goodall s study Is aggression innate Key Elements of Aggression Actual Behavior Intent to Harm Physical or Psychological Needn t be successful Motivations Hobbes The Natural State Aggression is innate and the goal of institution is to keep the savage beast inside all humans tamed Aggression is learned Aggression is a product of society Rouseau Freud Humans have two instincts Eros bringing life having sex Thanatos death instinct Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees our closest relatives she believed the animals were very docile and calm natured until she witnessed a 4 year long war between two groups The war only ended after one group killed every member of the other group It is natural for those animals to be aggressive It is innate that humans are aggressive Lecture 22 November 18 Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination Define stereotype prejudice and discrimination Explain the night in the Bronx study Who is more likely to be seen holding a gun when show images of people holding different objects Stereotypes Beliefs about the traits that members of groups typically possess Prejudice Disliking members of the group Discrimination Behavior biased against members of the group One night in the Bronx four undercover cops were given a description of an armed robbery They were searching for him when they came up on a man matching the description The man reached in


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