Berkeley BIOLOGY 1B - Lecture Notes (3 pages)

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Lecture Notes



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Lecture Notes

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3
School:
University of California, Berkeley
Course:
Biology 1b - General Biology
General Biology Documents

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Biology 1B Ecology Lecture 1 Page 1 Professor Resh Spring 2010 The Control of River Blindness in West Africa an example of what we will discuss in ecology and evolutionary biology during the last part of the semester Outline of Lecture 1 Ecology of a Human Disease A What is Onchocerciasis B What causes it C How is it controlled D What happened after Onchocerciasis was controlled E Geopolitics and disease control programs F Skin pigmentation and human evolution A What is Onchocerciasis Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a human disease that may results in 10 30 of villagers in West Africa becoming blind It is known from Africa and parts of South America but 99 of the blindness from it occurs in West Africa Early stages include rashes severe itching Blindness results from immune response B What causes it 1 It is transmitted by the black fly Simulium damnosum 2 It is caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus C How is it controlled 1 Control of the black fly vector through insecticide applications 30 000 miles of river per week for 20 years Biology 1B Ecology Lecture 1 Page 2 Professor Resh Spring 2010 The Control of River Blindness in West Africa an example of what we will discuss in ecology and evolutionary biology during the last part of the semester 2 Control of parasitic worms through chemotherapy distribution of Ivermectin drugs to 7 million people in 11 severely affected countries 3 The control is based on biodiversity of the vector and parasite the insecticides used drugs distributed and non target fauna 4 This disease is an example of evolution and ecology in disease control D What happened after Onchocerciasis was controlled 1 Food is now grown to feed an additional 17 million people 2 However unplanned resettlement of river valleys freed from Onchocerciasis led to unsustainable agriculture and soil erosion 3 Distribution of bed nets for malaria control and drugs for lymphatic filariasis E Geopolitics wars political strife can affect the most



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