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TEST 3 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 10 - Sexual Coercion Sexual Coercion: receiving or performing sexual acts involving another individual without that individual's consent, knowledge, or explicit awareness of the act. -The use of force, intimidation, deception to receive or perform sexual acts involving another individual. Sexual coercion is distinct from rape in that it describes a specific set of identifiable behaviors that may be compared across a number of different species or cultures. Naturalistic Fallacy - The error of deriving what ought to be from what is. Creating an evolutionary explanation of coercion does not meant Genetic Determinism - idea that behavior is unalterable, programmed, and unchangeable. this idea is untrue. Evolutionary Perspective Actions/Behaviors from an evolutionary perspective explain how male-female coercion is way more common. Coercion is more likely to occur during estrus, and active solicitation periods. Concealed ovulation and continual attractiveness in hominins could be an explanation to why there is more coercion. Sexual Coercion: Evolutionary Expectations: - Fertile female more likely to be coerced - Behavioral opportunities must occur often enough to be selected for. - Males ensure paternity trough coercion but avoid penalty (cost of paternity) - It is expected to be a tactic of males with low rate value. This means they have a small chance of mating so they resort to coercion. Orangutans & Gorillas - Bachelor gorillas males form groups - Orangutan bachelors are solitary (benefit by being opportunistic sexual predators) Evolutionary Research - Thornill and Palmer argue that coercion has evolved. - Coercion benefits a males reproductive success in some casesThornill and Palmer - Females are choosier, males have been selected to find a way to be chosen by possessing traits that females prefer, gain access to females through competition, gain access to females trough sexual coercion. Alternative evolutionary hypotheses considered - 1) Rape is a male adaptation engaged in by males of all social status when victims are highly vulnerable - 2) Rape is a male adaptation engaged in by only low-status males excluded from other mating alternatives - 3) Rape is a male adaptation fro achieving social dominance over females - 4) Rape is a male adaptation that is the result of female preference for physically strong males - 5) Rape is not an adaptation, but a result of how recently disturbed environments impact men's evolved sexual psychology - 6) Rape is not an adaptation, but a pathological act of abnormal individuals - 7) Rape is not an adaptation, but a by-product of evolved differences in male and female sexual strategies (this was then only hypothesis supported by data) McKibbin et al. 2008 - coercion is a conditional strategy based on ancestral context - Not all men perform coercive behavior - Believe rape is more likely to occur under special circumstances - Used data from modern society to support evolutionary/psychological theory - Proposed 5 types of racists - Disadvantaged (no other means of copulation) - Specialized (sexually aroused by violence) - Opportunistic (resort to rape when cost of retaliation is low) - High Mating-effort (aggressive, dominant males with high self-esteem and more experience) - Partner (rape partners for perceived risk of sperm competition/ fear of infidelity/possessive) Other Scenarios - Procreation as an explanation (only a minority believe that) - Evolutionary theory does not explain female-male rape or non-procreative rapeRate of sexual assault has declined Culture and Rape - Is rape a socially learned behavior or is it a product of the biological nature of males? - Rape is defined by the culture that is being studied (different definitions of rape) - Non-normative rape (not condoned) vs normative rape (condoned) - Normative Rape: - exchange rape (exchange the woman after losing a bet, or in exchange of something) - marital rape (raping the spouse) - Punitive rape (disciplinary) - theft rape (stealing a woman) - ceremonial rape - status rape (master-slave rape and things of that sort) CHAPTER 11: SEXUAL ORIENTATION Sexual orientation: an inherent propensity towards emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction to men, women, both sexes, neither sex, or another sex. Also refers to a person's sense of personal and so cial identity based on those attractions. Sexual behavior vs Sexual Orientation: people can engage in homosexual behavior but not have homosexual orientation. In American culture we generally recognize 4 categories of sexual orientation - asexual - heterosexual - homosexual - bisexual Asexuality: the absence of traditional sexual orientation. An asexual individual has little or no sexual attraction to males or females. Heterosexuality: sexual behavior and practices with a preference or desire/attraction towards members of the opposite sex. Homosexuality: consists of sexual behavior and practices with preference or desire/attraction towards members of the same sex3.4% of US adults identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (11.7 million Americans) Bisexuality: consists of sexual behavior and practices with a preference or desire/attraction towards members of both sexes. Bisexuality does not require that a person be attracted equally to both sex es. Sexual Orientation Theories The is no simple, single cause for sexual orientation. Research suggests that it's a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. - Biological - Developmental - Behavioral - Sociological - Interactional Kinsey Scale: sexual orientation is considered to be on a continuum. On one end is those who are exclusively heterosexual and on the other exclusively homosexual with all degrees in between. It is believe that the majority of humans are a degree of bisexual. This still does not distinguish psychology from behavior. Nature versus Nurture: debate exists over whether there are more biological or psychological factors that produce sexual orientation in humans. Reasons actually include a combination of genetic factors and environmental factors. Sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime. However, most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation. Homosexual behavior in animals: it is more rare, but it is seen. Example: rams. Giraffes, penguins. Given the prevalence of homosexuality among non-humans, it is

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